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Sitong Guo, Andrew C. Billings and James C. Abdallah

in-groups (Cleveland) versus out-groups (all other NBA teams) or whether other elements could be factors in such communicative dilemmas. Social-identity theory provides a theoretical base to formulate hypotheses, with the potential contribution being a further delineation in out-group derogation

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T. Bettina Cornwell, Steffen Jahn, Hu Xie and Wang Suk Suh

, this work differs from past research in also examining the role of in-group entitativity ( Gaertner & Schopler, 1998 ) that arises at an event. In-group feelings are posited as an important moderator of downstream effects of emotions in a social group context such as a sporting event. Theoretical

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Lauren M. Robins, K.D. Hill, Lesley Day, Lindy Clemson, Caroline Finch and Terry Haines

This paper describes why older adults begin, continue, and discontinue group- and home-based falls prevention exercise and benefits and barriers to participation. Telephone surveys were used to collect data for 394 respondents. Most respondents reported not participating in group- (66%) or home-based (78%) falls prevention exercise recently. Reasons for starting group-based falls prevention exercise include health benefits (23–39%), health professional recommendation (13–19%), and social interaction (4–16%). They discontinued because the program finished (44%) or due to poor health (20%). Commonly reported benefits were social interaction (41–67%) and health (15–31%). Disliking groups was the main barrier (2–14%). Home-based falls prevention exercise was started for rehabilitation (46–63%) or upon health professional recommendation (22–48%) and stopped due to recovery (30%). Improvement in health (18–46%) was the main benefit. These findings could assist health professionals in prescribing group-based falls prevention exercise by considering characteristics of older adults who perceive social interaction to be beneficial.

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Adam M. Bruton, Stephen D. Mellalieu and David A. Shearer

The purpose of this multistudy investigation was to examine observation as an intervention for the manipulation of individual collective efficacy beliefs. Study 1 compared the effects of positive, neutral, and negative video footage of practice trials from an obstacle course task on collective efficacy beliefs in assigned groups. The content of the observation intervention (i.e., positive, neutral, and negative video footage) significantly influenced the direction of change in collective efficacy (p < .05). Study 2 assessed the influence of content familiarity (own team/sport vs. unfamiliar team/sport) on individual collective efficacy perceptions when observing positive footage of competitive basketball performance. Collective efficacy significantly increased for both the familiar and unfamiliar conditions postintervention, with the largest increase for the familiar condition (p < .05). The studies support the use of observation as an intervention to enhance individual perceptions of collective efficacy in group-based activities. The findings suggest that observations of any group displaying positive group characteristics are likely to increase collective efficacy beliefs; however, observation of one’s own team leads to the greatest increases.

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George B. Cunningham

Previous research on diversity has been criticized for failing to include intervening and process variables. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the influence of two intervening variables, perceived group diversity and a common in-group identity, on the relationship between group diversity and group outcomes. Data were collected from 45 track-and-field coaching staffs (N = 175 participants). Hierarchical-regression analysis revealed that actual diversity was positively related to perceptions of such differences, and, in turn, perceptions of diversity were related to a common in-group identity. Finally, a common in-group identity was negatively related to organizational turnover intentions of the group and positively related to two measures of group effectiveness. Theoretical contributions and implications for diverse groups are discussed.

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Sarah H. Whitehead, Stuart J.H. Biddle, Toni M. O’Donovan and Mary E. Nevill

Few studies have addressed factors influencing Scottish adolescent girls’ participation in physical activity (PA). Participants (N = 352) aged 11 to 16 years completed surveys measuring PA participation and potential social-psychological and physical-environmental correlates. Data were analyzed separately by two age groups (11-13 and 14-16 years). For younger girls, mother’s participation, perceived importance, and home equipment use were higher among those higher in PA. For older girls, perceived importance, home equipment use, neighborhood perceptions, and use and enjoyment of local facilities were higher among girls higher in PA. It seems that older girls place less importance on significant others and move toward autonomy away from the home.

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Susana Carrapatoso, Greet Cardon, Delfien Van Dyck, Joana Carvalho and Freja Gheysen

four times a year d. At least once a year e. Never 85.3 9.6 3.1 0.7 1.3 Participation in group activities How often did you take part in meetings or activities sponsored by organizations or associations such as a youth movement, sports club, recreational group (to play cards . . . parents’ association

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Jeroen Koekoek and Annelies Knoppers

Work in groups is often an integral part of physical education (PE) lessons, regardless of teaching and/or educational philosophies. Learning through group work is a multidimensional practice that generates a variety of ways in what and how children learn ( Barker, Quennersted, & Annerstedt, 2015

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Brian M. Mills, Scott Tainsky, B. Christine Green and Becca Leopkey

create a valued identity that is shared with other fans of their team. That is, they create a social identity (cf. Tajfel, 1974 ). The shared identity of fan groups creates and reinforces in-group bias ( Berendt & Uhrich, 2016 ), which is then strengthened in the presence of a strong out

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Tanya McGuane, Stephen Shannon, Lee-Ann Sharp, Martin Dempster and Gavin Breslin

to study how athletes’ identity formation, and hence group behavior, is influenced by social processes is social-identity theory (SIT; Tajfel, 1982 ). SIT assesses the formation of identity, based on membership in a social in-group. When individuals perceive personal value in subscribing to in-group