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Sitong Guo, Andrew C. Billings, and James C. Abdallah

in-groups (Cleveland) versus out-groups (all other NBA teams) or whether other elements could be factors in such communicative dilemmas. Social-identity theory provides a theoretical base to formulate hypotheses, with the potential contribution being a further delineation in out-group derogation

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T. Bettina Cornwell, Steffen Jahn, Hu Xie, and Wang Suk Suh

, this work differs from past research in also examining the role of in-group entitativity ( Gaertner & Schopler, 1998 ) that arises at an event. In-group feelings are posited as an important moderator of downstream effects of emotions in a social group context such as a sporting event. Theoretical

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Chantelle Zimmer, Meghan H. McDonough, Jennifer Hewson, Ann Toohey, Cari Din, Peter R.E. Crocker, and Erica V. Bennett

social participation and social inclusion among older adults through physical activity since it is a common form of social activity. A growing body of research is recognizing the psychosocial benefits older adults can accrue from participating in group physical activity programs. The development of

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Adam M. Bruton, Stephen D. Mellalieu, and David A. Shearer

The purpose of this multistudy investigation was to examine observation as an intervention for the manipulation of individual collective efficacy beliefs. Study 1 compared the effects of positive, neutral, and negative video footage of practice trials from an obstacle course task on collective efficacy beliefs in assigned groups. The content of the observation intervention (i.e., positive, neutral, and negative video footage) significantly influenced the direction of change in collective efficacy (p < .05). Study 2 assessed the influence of content familiarity (own team/sport vs. unfamiliar team/sport) on individual collective efficacy perceptions when observing positive footage of competitive basketball performance. Collective efficacy significantly increased for both the familiar and unfamiliar conditions postintervention, with the largest increase for the familiar condition (p < .05). The studies support the use of observation as an intervention to enhance individual perceptions of collective efficacy in group-based activities. The findings suggest that observations of any group displaying positive group characteristics are likely to increase collective efficacy beliefs; however, observation of one’s own team leads to the greatest increases.

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Lauren M. Robins, K.D. Hill, Lesley Day, Lindy Clemson, Caroline Finch, and Terry Haines

This paper describes why older adults begin, continue, and discontinue group- and home-based falls prevention exercise and benefits and barriers to participation. Telephone surveys were used to collect data for 394 respondents. Most respondents reported not participating in group- (66%) or home-based (78%) falls prevention exercise recently. Reasons for starting group-based falls prevention exercise include health benefits (23–39%), health professional recommendation (13–19%), and social interaction (4–16%). They discontinued because the program finished (44%) or due to poor health (20%). Commonly reported benefits were social interaction (41–67%) and health (15–31%). Disliking groups was the main barrier (2–14%). Home-based falls prevention exercise was started for rehabilitation (46–63%) or upon health professional recommendation (22–48%) and stopped due to recovery (30%). Improvement in health (18–46%) was the main benefit. These findings could assist health professionals in prescribing group-based falls prevention exercise by considering characteristics of older adults who perceive social interaction to be beneficial.

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George B. Cunningham

Previous research on diversity has been criticized for failing to include intervening and process variables. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the influence of two intervening variables, perceived group diversity and a common in-group identity, on the relationship between group diversity and group outcomes. Data were collected from 45 track-and-field coaching staffs (N = 175 participants). Hierarchical-regression analysis revealed that actual diversity was positively related to perceptions of such differences, and, in turn, perceptions of diversity were related to a common in-group identity. Finally, a common in-group identity was negatively related to organizational turnover intentions of the group and positively related to two measures of group effectiveness. Theoretical contributions and implications for diverse groups are discussed.

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Sarah H. Whitehead, Stuart J.H. Biddle, Toni M. O’Donovan, and Mary E. Nevill

Few studies have addressed factors influencing Scottish adolescent girls’ participation in physical activity (PA). Participants (N = 352) aged 11 to 16 years completed surveys measuring PA participation and potential social-psychological and physical-environmental correlates. Data were analyzed separately by two age groups (11-13 and 14-16 years). For younger girls, mother’s participation, perceived importance, and home equipment use were higher among those higher in PA. For older girls, perceived importance, home equipment use, neighborhood perceptions, and use and enjoyment of local facilities were higher among girls higher in PA. It seems that older girls place less importance on significant others and move toward autonomy away from the home.

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Ruth P. Saunders, Rod K. Dishman, Marsha Dowda, and Russell R. Pate

Background: Interventions promoting physical activity (PA) in youth have had limited success, in part because studies with methodological challenges have yielded an incomplete understanding of personal, social, and environmental influences on PA. This study described changes in these factors for subgroups of youth with initially high PA that decreased (Active-Decline) compared with children with initially low PA that decreased (Inactive-Decline) from fifth to ninth grades. Methods: Observational, prospective cohort design. Participants (n = 625) were fifth-grade children recruited in 2 school districts and followed from elementary to high school. Students and their parents responded to questionnaires to assess personal, social, and perceived physical environmental factors in the fifth (mean age = 10.5 [.5] y) and ninth (mean age = 14.7 [.6] y) grades. Analyses included a mixed-model 2-way repeated analysis of variances. Results: Children in the Active-Decline compared with those in the Inactive-Decline group showed a more favorable profile in 6 of 8 personal variables (perceived barriers, self-efficacy, self-schema, enjoyment, competence, and fitness motives) and 4 of 6 social variables (friend support, parent encouragement, parent support, and parent-reported support). Conclusions: The results suggest efforts to promote PA should target selected personal, social, and perceived environmental factors beginning before age 10 and continuing through adolescence.

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Susana Carrapatoso, Greet Cardon, Delfien Van Dyck, Joana Carvalho, and Freja Gheysen

four times a year d. At least once a year e. Never 85.3 9.6 3.1 0.7 1.3 Participation in group activities How often did you take part in meetings or activities sponsored by organizations or associations such as a youth movement, sports club, recreational group (to play cards . . . parents’ association

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Jordan D. Herbison, Terry W. Cowan, Luc J. Martin, Zach Root, and Mark W. Bruner

sense, sport introduces individuals to experiences of being a contributing member of a defined group. When an individual’s group membership is deemed important, their self-image will shift from viewing themselves as an autonomous individual (i.e., “I” and “me”) to a representative of their in-group (i