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Kerem Shuval, Mahmoud Qadan, David Leonard, Carolyn E. Barlow, Jeffrey Drope, Loretta DiPietro, Reid Oetjen, and Laura F. DeFina

Physical inactivity has been estimated to cause 6% to 10% of leading chronic diseases (ie, type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, breast and colon cancer) worldwide. 1 The global age standardized prevalence of physical inactivity was 27.5% in 2016, 2 with a median of 4.7 hours a day spent

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Thaneswaran Marthammuthu, Farizah Mohd Hairi, Wan Yuen Choo, Nur Afiqah Mohd Salleh, and Noran Naqiah Hairi

( Weitlauf et al., 2015 ; World Health Organization, 2020 ). Similarly, the Malaysian National Health and Morbidity Survey revealed low levels of physical activity among older Malaysians. With 48.8% of Malaysians over 60 years old being physically inactive ( Chan et al., 2017 ), it can be said that the

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Ray M. Merrill

matter (PM) 2.5 air pollution was associated with an increase in leisure-time physical inactivity (LTPI). 16 A nationally representative cross-sectional survey conducted in the United States found that increased PM2.5 was associated with lower physical activity. 17 All studies in a systematic review

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Linn Bøhler, Sílvia Ribeiro Coutinho, Jens F. Rehfeld, Linda Morgan, and Catia Martins

previous EI (better energy compensation) seen in active versus inactive individuals remain unknown, differences in postprandial satiety signaling may play a role. However, potential differences in the postprandial release of appetite-related hormones between active and inactive individuals have never been

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Azianah Mohamad Ibrahim, Devinder Kaur Ajit Singh, Sumaiyah Mat, Arimi Fitri Mat Ludin, and Suzana Shahar

Physical inactivity is a global pandemic with 1.4 billion adults insufficiently active worldwide ( World Health Organization, 2018 ). It has also been reported to be associated with higher risks of all-cause mortality including that from cardiovascular disease, breast and prostate cancer, fractures

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Lois Michaud Tomson, Robert P. Pangrazi, Glenn Friedman, and Ned Hutchison

While research has confirmed a negative relationship between adult depression and physical activity, there is little evidence for children. This study examined the relationship of being classified as physically active or inactive by a parent or a teacher to depressive symptoms in children 8 to 12 years of age (N = 933). It also assessed the relationship of playing sports outside of school, and of meeting health related fitness standards, to symptoms of depression. Relative risk of depressive symptoms for inactive classification was 2.8 to 3.4 times higher than it was for active, 1.3 to 2.4 times higher for children not playing sports outside of school, and 1.5 to 4.0 times higher for those not meeting health related fitness goals.

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Hazzaa M. Al-Hazzaa, Mohammad A. Alahmadi, Hana I. Al-Sobayel, Nada A. Abahussain, Dina M. Qahwaji, and Abdulrahman O. Musaiger

Background:

Few studies have reported comprehensive and valid physical activity (PA) data for Saudi youth. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine patterns and determinants of PA among Saudi adolescents.

Methods:

A cross-sectional study was conducted in Saudi secondary schools (15–19 years) during 2009/2010 and used multistage stratified cluster sample (N = 2866, 51.7% females). Weight, height, sedentary behaviors, PA, and dietary habits were assessed.

Results:

Roughly 44% of males and 20% of females were active (≥ 1 hour/day). Males in public schools were more active than in private schools, whereas the opposite was true for females. Females exercise mostly at home, whereas males exercise at public places. The majority of females exercise alone or with relatives, whereas males largely exercise with friends. Males were active for health and recreation whereas females were active for weight loss and recreation. Lack of time was the primary reason for inactivity in both sexes. The predictors of total PA time were gender, intakes of fruit, milk, energy drinks and vegetables and waist/height ratio (R 2 = 0.145).

Conclusions:

The high inactivity levels, especially among females, are of great concern. Promotion of active living among youth should be a national public health priority.

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Jesper Nørregaard, Martin Gram, Andreas Vigelsø, Caroline Wiuff, Anja Birk Kuhlman, Jørn Wulff Helge, and Flemming Dela

We studied the effect of physical inactivity and subsequent retraining on cardiovascular risk factors in 17 young (Y; 23.4 ± 0.5 years) and 15 older adult (O; 68.1 ± 1.1 years) men who underwent 14 days of one leg immobilization followed by six weeks of training. Body weight remained unchanged. Daily physical activity decreased by 31 ± 9% (Y) and 37 ± 9% (O) (p < .001). Maximal oxygen uptake decreased with inactivity (Y) and always increased with training. Visceral fat mass decreased (p < .05) with training. Concentrations of lipids in blood were always highest in the older adults. FFA and glycerol increased with reduced activity (p < .05), but reverted with training. Training resulted in increases in HDL-C (p < .05) and a decrease in LDL-C and TC:HDL-C ratio (p < .05). A minor reduction in daily physical activity for two weeks increased blood lipids in both young and older men. Six weeks of training improved blood lipids along with loss of visceral fat.

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Patricia A. Vertinsky

Despite growing indications of increased participation in healthful physical activity among the elderly, aging women tend to participate in exercise and sport to a lesser extent than their male peers. This paper suggests that strongly held beliefs about the potential risks of vigorous exercise deter many elderly women from being physically active. It then examines the gendered nature of myths and stereotypes concerning aging and physical activity and explores those social and cultural factors that have historically persuaded aging women to practice "being" old and inactive before "becoming" old. The purpose is to elaborate upon studies in the history of aging which indicate that popular perceptions rather than reality shaped social expectations, professional prescriptions, and public policy. These studies suggest how the creation of negative stereotypes around the aging female paved the way for an unbalanced version of the realities of female old age, at times delimiting aspirations and constraining opportunities for vigorous and healthful physical activity.

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Andressa Crystine da Silva Sobrinho, Mariana Luciano de Almeida, Vagner Ramon Rodrigues Silva, Guilherme da Silva Rodrigues, Karine Pereira Rodrigues, Camila de Paula Monteiro, and Carlos Roberto Bueno Júnior

et al., 2016 ). Lifestyle is one of the leading causes of chronic diseases worldwide ( Meneguci et al., 2015 ), and studies have shown an increase in physically inactive lifestyles in older populations ( Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, 2013 ; Queiroz et al., 2016 ; Wang et