matter (PM) 2.5 air pollution was associated with an increase in leisure-time physical inactivity (LTPI). 16 A nationally representative cross-sectional survey conducted in the United States found that increased PM2.5 was associated with lower physical activity. 17 All studies in a systematic review
Linn Bøhler, Sílvia Ribeiro Coutinho, Jens F. Rehfeld, Linda Morgan and Catia Martins
previous EI (better energy compensation) seen in active versus inactive individuals remain unknown, differences in postprandial satiety signaling may play a role. However, potential differences in the postprandial release of appetite-related hormones between active and inactive individuals have never been
Kerem Shuval, Liora Sahar, Kelley Pettee Gabriel, Gregory Knell, Galit Weinstein, Tal Gafni Gal, Felipe Lobelo and Loretta DiPietro
providers in a busy clinical setting in measuring their patients’ “disuse” (ie, defined as a combination of sedentary behavior and physical inactivity) and provide subsequent recommendations to modify behavior. 12 Primary care providers’ advice is well respected, and pertinent tools and referral partners
Peter T. Katzmarzyk
Although the prevalence of physical inactivity is high in Canada, few studies have assessed its public health impact.
A cause-deleted methodology was employed to estimate the effects of physical inactivity on life expectancy. Life expectancy in 2002 was estimated from an abridged life table analysis, which was repeated after removing deaths from physical inactivity. Deaths from physical inactivity were estimated from published population-attributable fractions for coronary artery disease, stroke, hypertension, colon cancer, breast cancer, and type 2 diabetes.
Life expectancy was 79.7 y in the total population, 77.2 y in males, and 82.1 y in females. Compared to overall life expectancy, physical inactivity cause-deleted values were 0.86 y lower in the total population, 0.65 y lower in males, and 1.0 y lower in females.
Life expectancy could be increased by over 10 months if Canadians could be encouraged to be physically active.
Sunday Azagba and Mesbah Fathy Sharaf
In spite of the substantial benefits of physical activity for healthy aging, older adults are considered the most physically inactive segment of the Canadian population. This paper examines leisure-time physical inactivity (LTPA) and its correlates among older Canadian adults.
We use data from the Canadian Community Health Survey with 45,265 individuals aged 50–79 years. A logistic regression is estimated and separate regressions are performed for males and females.
About 50% of older Canadian adults are physically inactive. Higher odds of physical inactivity are found among current smokers (OR = 1.52, CI = 1.37–1.69), those who binge-drink (OR = 1.24, CI = 1.11–1.39), visible minorities (OR = 1.60, CI = 1.39–1.85), immigrants (OR = 1.13, CI = 1.02–1.25), individuals with high perceived life stress (OR = 1.48, CI = 1.31–1.66). We also find lower odds of physical inactivity among: males (OR = 0.89, CI = 0.83 to 0.96), those with strong social interaction (OR = 0.71, CI = 0.66–0.77), with general life satisfaction (OR = 0.66, CI = 0.58–0.76) and individuals with more education. Similar results are obtained from separate regressions for males and females.
Identifying the correlates of LTPA among older adults can inform useful intervention measures.
Jessica L. Unick, Michael P. Walkup, Michael E. Miller, John W. Apolzan, Peter H. Brubaker, Mace Coday, James O. Hill, John M. Jakicic, Roeland J.W. Middelbeek, Delia West, Rena R. Wing and the Look AHEAD Research Group
comprehensive behavioral WL intervention and were inactive at baseline. Additional aims were to assess (1) whether achievement of early PA goals was associated with an increased likelihood of achieving the PA intervention goal of ≥175 minutes per week at 1 year, and (2) the sensitivity and specificity of
Lois Michaud Tomson, Robert P. Pangrazi, Glenn Friedman and Ned Hutchison
While research has confirmed a negative relationship between adult depression and physical activity, there is little evidence for children. This study examined the relationship of being classified as physically active or inactive by a parent or a teacher to depressive symptoms in children 8 to 12 years of age (N = 933). It also assessed the relationship of playing sports outside of school, and of meeting health related fitness standards, to symptoms of depression. Relative risk of depressive symptoms for inactive classification was 2.8 to 3.4 times higher than it was for active, 1.3 to 2.4 times higher for children not playing sports outside of school, and 1.5 to 4.0 times higher for those not meeting health related fitness goals.
Jesper Nørregaard, Martin Gram, Andreas Vigelsø, Caroline Wiuff, Anja Birk Kuhlman, Jørn Wulff Helge and Flemming Dela
We studied the effect of physical inactivity and subsequent retraining on cardiovascular risk factors in 17 young (Y; 23.4 ± 0.5 years) and 15 older adult (O; 68.1 ± 1.1 years) men who underwent 14 days of one leg immobilization followed by six weeks of training. Body weight remained unchanged. Daily physical activity decreased by 31 ± 9% (Y) and 37 ± 9% (O) (p < .001). Maximal oxygen uptake decreased with inactivity (Y) and always increased with training. Visceral fat mass decreased (p < .05) with training. Concentrations of lipids in blood were always highest in the older adults. FFA and glycerol increased with reduced activity (p < .05), but reverted with training. Training resulted in increases in HDL-C (p < .05) and a decrease in LDL-C and TC:HDL-C ratio (p < .05). A minor reduction in daily physical activity for two weeks increased blood lipids in both young and older men. Six weeks of training improved blood lipids along with loss of visceral fat.
Hazzaa M. Al-Hazzaa, Mohammad A. Alahmadi, Hana I. Al-Sobayel, Nada A. Abahussain, Dina M. Qahwaji and Abdulrahman O. Musaiger
Few studies have reported comprehensive and valid physical activity (PA) data for Saudi youth. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine patterns and determinants of PA among Saudi adolescents.
A cross-sectional study was conducted in Saudi secondary schools (15–19 years) during 2009/2010 and used multistage stratified cluster sample (N = 2866, 51.7% females). Weight, height, sedentary behaviors, PA, and dietary habits were assessed.
Roughly 44% of males and 20% of females were active (≥ 1 hour/day). Males in public schools were more active than in private schools, whereas the opposite was true for females. Females exercise mostly at home, whereas males exercise at public places. The majority of females exercise alone or with relatives, whereas males largely exercise with friends. Males were active for health and recreation whereas females were active for weight loss and recreation. Lack of time was the primary reason for inactivity in both sexes. The predictors of total PA time were gender, intakes of fruit, milk, energy drinks and vegetables and waist/height ratio (R 2 = 0.145).
The high inactivity levels, especially among females, are of great concern. Promotion of active living among youth should be a national public health priority.
Patricia A. Vertinsky
Despite growing indications of increased participation in healthful physical activity among the elderly, aging women tend to participate in exercise and sport to a lesser extent than their male peers. This paper suggests that strongly held beliefs about the potential risks of vigorous exercise deter many elderly women from being physically active. It then examines the gendered nature of myths and stereotypes concerning aging and physical activity and explores those social and cultural factors that have historically persuaded aging women to practice "being" old and inactive before "becoming" old. The purpose is to elaborate upon studies in the history of aging which indicate that popular perceptions rather than reality shaped social expectations, professional prescriptions, and public policy. These studies suggest how the creation of negative stereotypes around the aging female paved the way for an unbalanced version of the realities of female old age, at times delimiting aspirations and constraining opportunities for vigorous and healthful physical activity.