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Amber Watts, Mauricio Garnier-Villarreal and Paul Gardiner

sitting time requires measurement of body posture. The present study will focus on sitting in particular, using inclinometry as opposed to movement that generates fewer than 100 counts per minute. Wrist-worn activity monitors, when used in isolation, lack the ability to accurately evaluate sitting posture

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James P. Fletcher, James David Taylor, Chris A. Carroll and M. Blake Richardson

patient’s response to interventions, given that increasing spinal mobility is often regarded as an important treatment goal. 1 Handheld dual inclinometry (HDI) is recommended by the American Medical Association for the measurement of lumbar AROM and is well described in multiple sources. 2 , 3 One

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David Werner, John Willson, Richard Willy and Joaquin Barrios

Frontal plane knee alignment can influence the development and management of various knee pathologies. Valid and reliable clinical methods for assessment are needed. The primary purposes of this study were to assess the validity and reliability of inclinometer-based frontal plane tibial orientation as a limb alignment measure, and secondarily to establish normal values in healthy individuals. Frontal tibial orientation was validated per moderately strong correlation to radiographic knee alignment. Intra- and interrater reliability were excellent. The normative mean was approximately 7°. In summary, inclinometer-based frontal tibial orientation is a valid and reliable clinical measure of frontal plane knee alignment.

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Paul A. Ullucci, Frank Tudini and Matthew F. Moran

Context: Assessment of upper cervical range of motion (UCROM) and mobility is commonly performed in the clinical setting for patients suffering from headache, neck pain, and vestibular dysfunction. Reliable and reproducible measurement of this motion is often difficult or too expensive to perform in the clinical setting. Smartphone applications using the device’s internal gyroscope offer an easy and inexpensive means of measuring UCROM, but their reliability has not been reported in the literature. Objective: To assess the reliability of an inclinometer application installed on 2 different devices (iPhone 6 [IP] and android [AN]) and to measure UCROM in a healthy population. Design: Two examiners assessed passive UCROM. Each examiner was assigned to a specific smartphone, and a repeated-measures design consisting of 3 trials for each examiner–phone was performed. The order of testing was randomized, and the examiners were blinded to UCROM measures. Setting: Laboratory. Participants: A total of 38 subjects (19 females and 19 males; age: 23.8 [1.2] y) without pain or injury to the neck or spine for at least 3 months. Intervention: Each examiner passively flexed the head fully, rotated the head fully in 1 direction, and then in another. Peak rotation measures were recorded from each smartphone. Three trials were performed for each phone, with a 2-minute break between examiners/phones. Main Outcome Measures: Intraclass correlation coefficient using a 2-way mixed, absolute agreement model was obtained (1) between each examiner–phone and (2) within each examiner–phone for the measurements in each rotation direction. Results: Interphone/examiner reliability comparing average peak and total UCROM for each device was excellent (.87, .81). Intraphone/examiner reliability, determined across 3 trials, was also excellent (AN right rot. = .91, AN left rot. = .96; IP right rot. = .98, IP left rot. = .95). Conclusion: UCROM can be reliably measured using a smartphone inclinometer application.

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Robert W. Cox, Rodrigo E. Martinez, Russell T. Baker and Lindsay Warren

stationary arm with the proximal limb, and the movement arm with the distal limb. Ankle plantar flexion is measured with the fulcrum centered over the lateral malleolus, stationary arm aligned with the fibula, and movement arm aligned with the fifth metatarsal. 1 – 3 Inclinometry, an alternative to

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Study Esther Casas * Arturo Justes * Carlos Calvo * 1 01 2019 28 1 10.1123/jsr.2017-0389 jsr.2017-0389 Reliability of Smartphone Inclinometry to Measure Upper Cervical Range of Motion Paul A. Ullucci * Frank Tudini * Matthew F. Moran * 1 01 2019 28 1 10.1123/jsr.2018-0048 jsr.2018-0048 JSR

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Zachary K. Winkelmann, Ethan J. Roberts and Kenneth E. Games

before being considered for the study. Measurements Hamstring Flexibility Hamstring flexibility was assessed using a digital inclinometer (Baseline®; Fabrication Enterprises Inc, White Plains, NY). Digital inclinometry is a valid and reliable tool to assess range of motion (ROM). 15 , 16 Digital

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Nicholas D. Gilson, Caitlin Hall, Andreas Holtermann, Allard J. van der Beek, Maaike A. Huysmans, Svend Erik Mathiassen and Leon Straker

the term “sedentary behavior” to denote data derived from accelerometer counts and “sitting” as indicative of posture, where accelerometer studies utilized inclinometry or pattern recognition algorithms. Methodologic quality was assessed using 12 items based on a checklist for the reporting of

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Liana M. Tennant, Erika Nelson-Wong, Joshua Kuest, Gabriel Lawrence, Kristen Levesque, David Owens, Jeremy Prisby, Sarah Spivey, Stephanie R. Albin, Kristen Jagger, Jeff M. Barrett, James D. Wong and Jack P. Callaghan

refers to the lumbar active ROM measured using dual inclinometry. Passive ROM refers to the lumbar passive ROM measured in the jig. a Passive ROM data are reported for 62 participants (30 males). See Table  3 for participant exclusion criteria. Figure 1 The experimental protocol outlining the order of

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Stephanie L. Stockwell, Lindsey R. Smith, Hannah M. Weaver, Daniella J. Hankins and Daniel P. Bailey

underestimations of breaks in sedentary time, which may affect the observed associations with health outcomes. 19 To the authors’ knowledge, there are currently no studies that have explored the associations between objectively measured sedentary behavior patterns using inclinometry (that permits detection of