This study aimed to analyze the impact of step-duration protocols, 1-min vs. 3-min, on cardiorespiratory responses to exercise, whatever the aerobic-fitness level of sedentary (65.5 ± 2.3 years, n = 8) or highly fit (63.1 ± 3.2 years, n = 19) participants. Heart rate and VO2 at the first and second ventilatory thresholds (VT1, VT2) and maximal exercise were not significantly different between the two protocols. In master athletes, the 3-min protocol elicited significantly lower ventilation at VT2 and maximal exercise (p < .01). In the latter, breathlessness was also lower at maximal exercise (p < .05) than in sedentary participants. In trained or sedentary older adults, VT1, VT2, and VO2max were not influenced by stage duration. According to the lower breathlessness and ventilation, however, the 3-min step protocol could be more appropriate in master athletes. In untrained participants, because the cardiorespiratory responses were similar with the two incremental exercise tests, either of them could be used.
Fabien Deruelle, Cédric Nourry, Patrick Mucci, Frédéric Bart, Jean-Marie Grosbois, Ghislaine Lensel and Claudine Fabre
Pitre C. Bourdon, Sarah M. Woolford and Jonathan D. Buckley
Prescribing training loads for endurance athletes often incorporates the measurement of the blood lactate response to incremental exercise in conjunction with heart rate (HR), oxygen consumption ( V ˙ O 2 ), and exercise intensity, and the subsequent calculation of blood lactate thresholds
Stephen R. Stannard, Martin W. Thompson and Janette C. Brand Miller
Consumption of low glycemic index (GI) foods before submaximal endurance exercise may be beneficial to performance. To test whether this may also be true for high intensity exercise. 10 trained cyclists began an incremental exercise test to exhaustion 65 min after consuming equal carbohydrate portions of glucose (HGI), pasta (LGI), and a noncarbohydrate control (PL). Time to fatigue did not differ significantly (p = 0.05) between treatments. Plasma glucose concentration was significantly lower after LGI vs. HGI from 15 to 45 min of rest postprandial. During exercise, plasma glucose concentration was significantly lower after HGI vs. LGI from 200 W until exhaustion. Plasma lactate concentration following HGI was significantly higher than PL from 30 min of rest postprandial through to the end of the 200-W workload. Plasma lactate concentration following LGI was significantly lower than after HGI from 45 min of rest postprandial through to the end of the 100-W workload. At higher exercise intensities, there was no significant difference in plasma lactate levels between treatments. These findings suggest that a high GI carbohydrate meal (1 g/kg body wt) 65 min prior to exercise decreases plasma glucose and increases plasma lactate levels compared to a low GI meal, but not enough to be detrimental to incremental exercise performance.
Hans Luttikholt, Lars R. McNaughton, Adrian W. Midgley and David J. Bentley
There is currently no model that predicts peak power output (PPO) thereby allowing comparison between different incremental exercise test (EXT) protocols. In this study we have used the critical power profile to develop a mathematical model for predicting PPO from the results of different EXTs.
The purpose of this study was to examine the level of agreement between actual PPO values and those predicted from the new model.
Eleven male athletes (age 25 ± 5 years, VO2max 62 ± 8 mL · kg–1 · min–1) completed 3 laboratory tests on a cycle ergometer. Each test comprised an EXT consisting of 1-minute workload increments of 30 W (EXT30/1) and 3-minute (EXT25/3) and 5-minute workload increments (EXT25/5) of 25 W. The PPO determined from each test was used to predict the PPO from the remaining 2 EXTs.
The differences between actual and predicted PPO values were statistically insignificant (P > .05). The random error components of the limits of agreement of ≤30 W also indicated acceptable levels of agreement between actual and predicted PPO values.
Further data collection is necessary to confirm whether the model is able to predict PPO over a wide range of EXT protocols in athletes of different aerobic and anaerobic capacities.
Yongming Li, Margot Niessen, Xiaoping Chen and Ulrich Hartmann
and coaches gave their informed written consent for them to participate. All procedures were approved by the local research ethics committee in the spirit of the Declaration of Helsinki. Design All the kayakers performed an incremental exercise test and 2 time trials on a kayak ergometer (Dansprint, I
Giovanna Ghiani, Sara Magnani, Azzurra Doneddu, Gianmarco Sainas, Virginia Pinna, Marco Caboi, Girolamo Palazzolo, Filippo Tocco and Antonio Crisafulli
-frequency questionnaire. a The average energy provided each day by the stored food along with its composition. Physical Capacity and Cardiovascular Function Assessment Seven days before his departure, the subject underwent an incremental exercise test (IET) on a cycle ergometer (CUSTO Med, Ottobrunn, Germany) to assess
Christian P. Cheung, Joshua T. Slysz and Jamie F. Burr
concentration. Rating of perceived exertion (RPE) was assessed using the Borg 6–20 rating of perceived exertion scale. 22 For all following visits, participants performed an incremental exercise protocol immediately following each preexercise intervention. An illustration of the design of the incremental
Jose A. Rodríguez-Marroyo, José G. Villa, Raúl Pernía and Carl Foster
methodological approach is more realistic than that previously used, 1 , 3 – 6 since it assumes altered reference HR values. Practical Applications The results of this study showed that the use of a postrace incremental exercise test may be a sensitive tool to assess changes in performance after severe stress
Nicola Giovanelli, Lea Biasutti, Desy Salvadego, Hailu K. Alemayehu, Bruno Grassi and Stefano Lazzer
before the race (PRE) in order to perform an incremental uphill running test (day 1) and an incremental exercise by utilizing a 1-leg KE ergometer (day 2), previously described and used by our group. 14 , 15 The KE exercise was repeated as soon as possible after the end of the race (8  min, POST
Michael Barker, Ulrich Merz, Minou S. Hertl and Gerhard Heimann
Pulmonary function and exercise performance were evaluated in a cohort of 26 children born prematurely at very low birth weight (VLBW) and compared to healthy term controls (age 8-14 years). Children with a history of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) had slightly lower lung resting function than those without BPD or controls. Oxygen uptake kinetics in the aerobic range were similar in all three groups. With incremental exercise, however, preterm children with and without BPD demonstrated ventilatory limitation with significantly lower peak work rates. A closer pulmonary follow-up including an exercise test may thus appear warranted after preterm delivery at VLBW.