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Aerobic and Anaerobic Contributions to Energy Production Among Junior Male and Female Cross-Country Skiers During Diagonal Skiing

Kerry McGawley and Hans-Christer Holmberg


Cross-country-ski races place complex demands on athletes, with events lasting between approximately 3 min and 2 h. The aim of the current study was to compare the aerobic and anaerobic measures derived from a short time trial (TT) between male and female skiers using diagonal cross-country skiing.


Twenty-four highly trained cross-country skiers (12 male and 12 female, age 17.4 ± 1.4 y, body mass 68.2 ± 8.9 kg, height 174 ± 8 cm) participated. The submaximal VO2–speed relationship and VO2max were derived from an incremental ramp test to exhaustion (RAMP), while the accumulated oxygen deficit (AOD), peak VO2, and performance time were measured during a 600-m TT.


The female skiers took longer to complete the TT than the males (209 ± 9 s vs 166 ± 7 s, P < .001) and exhibited a lower relative anaerobic contribution (20% ± 4% vs 24% ± 3%, P = .015) and a higher fractional utilization of VO2max (84% ± 4% vs 79% ± 5%, P = .007) than males. Although there was no significant difference in AOD between the sexes (40.9 ± 9.5 and 47.3 ± 7.4 mL/kg for females and males, respectively; P = .079), the mean difference ± 90% confidence intervals of 6.4 ± 6.0 mL/kg reflected a likely practical difference (ES = 0.72). The peak VO2 during the TT was significantly higher than VO2max during the RAMP for all participants combined (62.3 ± 6.8 vs 60.5 ± 7.2 mL · kg−1 · min−1, P = .011), and the mean difference ± 90% confidence intervals of 1.8 ± 1.1 mL · kg−1 · min−1 reflected a possible practical difference (ES = 0.25).


These results show that performance and physiological responses to a self-paced TT lasting approximately 3 min differ between sexes. In addition, a TT may provide a valid measure of VO2max.

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An Analysis of Variability in Power Output During Indoor and Outdoor Cycling Time Trials

Owen Jeffries, Mark Waldron, Stephen D. Patterson, and Brook Galna

-minute time-trial tests with data collected consistently using the same portable power meter either (1) outdoors at a cycle-specific racing circuit (Figure  1 ) or (2) indoors on a laboratory-based electromagnetically braked training ergometer, 7 days apart. The third visit was an incremental ramp test

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Thresholds Power Profiles and Performance in Youth Road Cycling

Gabriele Gallo, Luca Filipas, Michele Tornaghi, Mattia Garbin, Roberto Codella, Nicola Lovecchio, and Daniele Zaccaria

collected. A study of our research group showed that using points to assess performance outcomes in cycling is a reliable tool. 8 Procedures An incremental ramp test was conducted in a temperature-controlled room with participants performing the test on the frame of their own bike, fitted on the Cyclus2

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The Effects of Blackcurrant and Caffeine Combinations on Performance and Physiology During Repeated High-Intensity Cycling

Carl D. Paton, Lillian C. Morton, Benoit Bomal, and Andrea J. Braakhuis

two researcher monitored sessions of the testing intervention on their own personal indoor training ergometer to aid familiarization and minimize training effects. During the initial visit to the laboratory, cyclists completed an incremental ramp test to determine their peak oxygen consumption ( V ˙ O

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Enhanced Cycling Time-Trial Performance During Multiday Exercise With Higher-Pressure Compression Garment Wear

Ewan R. Williams, James McKendry, Paul T. Morgan, and Leigh Breen

, Armonk, NY). Results The participants attained a V ˙ O 2 peak of 3.91 (0.72) L/min (55 [10] mL/kg/min) and a peak power output of 367 (76) W during the incremental ramp test. The work rate applied during the high-intensity trial on day 1 was 277 (63) W. There were no differences in pulmonary V ˙ O 2

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Abstracts From the 31st Pediatric Exercise Physiology Meeting: Children-Exercise-Physical Activity & Sport Performance (September 2019, Umeå, Sweden)

-times/week for six-months. Each participant completed an incremental ramp test to volitional exhaustion and three heavy-intensity constant work-rate tests to determine the dynamic oxygen uptake, heart rate and deoxyhaemoglobin response at pre-, mid- and post-intervention and at follow-up three-months after

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Abstracts From the December 2019 International Sport + Exercise Nutrition Conference in Newscastle upon Tyne

incremental power outputs (100 W, 125 W, 150 W,175 W). Steady state oxygen consumption VO 2 was assessed during each cycling bout. Following a 15-minute rest, participants performed an incremental ramp test to exhaustion (intensity increasing by 30 W·min −1 ) for the determination of VO 2peak . In the fish

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Abstracts from the 32nd Pediatric Work Physiology Conference (September 2021, Virtual)

incremental ramp test to exhaustion on a cycle ergometer before completing three 6-minute transitions at a moderate-intensity (90% gas exchange threshold) on separate visits. Bilateral MCAv and end-tidal carbon dioxide (PETCO2) were collected throughout. Data were analysed using a mono-exponential model with