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Estimation of Gait Independence Using a Tri-Axial Accelerometer in Stroke Patients

Yoshifumi Kijima, Ryoji Kiyama, Masaki Sekine, Toshiyo Tamura, Toshiro Fujimoto, Tetsuo Maeda, and Tadasu Ohshige

extremity and gait independence in stroke patients. We therefore aimed to clarify whether a gait analysis using an accelerometer could estimate gait independence in stroke patients. We expected that the evaluation of gait quality from RMS, gait regularity, and symmetry of the acceleration in the trunk and

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An Exploration of Coaching Practice: How Do High-Level Adventure Sports Coaches Develop Independence in Learners?

Chris Eastabrook, Robin D. Taylor, Pamela Richards, and Loel Collins

High-level adventure sports coaches have an explicit desire to teach for independence ( Christian et al., 2017 ; Collins et al., 2015 ). However, there is no clarity of what is meant by independence in this context nor how it might be developed. This desire is against the backdrop of a rise in

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Are Body Composition, Strength, and Functional Independence Similarities Between Spinal Cord Injury Classifications? A Discriminant Analysis

Rodrigo Rodrigues Gomes Costa, Rodrigo Luiz Carregaro, and Frederico Ribeiro Neto

recruitment of shoulder muscles 14 were reported, with no significant differences between HP and LP. In clinical practice, the SCI classification has shown differences between sports performance, the speed of wheelchair, and functional independence, although some assessment scales do not demonstrate such

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The Association Between Self-Reported Adherence to Physical Activity Recommendations and Criteria for Maintaining Physical Independence of Older Adults

Katie J. Thralls and Susan S. Levy

Older adults are the fastest growing age demographic in the United States. The older adult population (≥ 65 years) is projected to increase by over 50% from 40.2 million in 2010 to 88.5 million by 2050 ( Vincent & Velkoff, 2010 ). During aging, maintaining independence is important, as is

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Physical Activity, Quality of Life, and Functional Autonomy of Adults With Spinal Cord Injuries

Camilla Yuri Kawanishi and Márcia Greguol

This study aimed to perform a systematic review of studies that address the influence of physical activity on the quality of life and functional independence of adult individuals with spinal cord injury. The review was performed using data obtained from the MEDLINE, CINAHL, SciELO, LILACS, SPORTDiscus, Web of Science, Academic Search Premier, and PEDro databases using the following keywords: quality of life; functional independence; autonomy; independence; physical activity; activities of daily living; physical exercise; tetraplegia; paraplegia; spinal cord injury; physical disabilities; and wheelchair. Eleven studies met the inclusion criteria. Although there was a lack of consensus among the selected studies, the majority of them presented a strong correlation between physical activity and variables of quality of life and/or functional independence. Thus, physical activity appears to have an important influence on social relationships, functional independence, psychological factors, and physical aspects, which can enhance quality of life and independence in the performance of daily activities.

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The Reach-to-Grasp Movement: A New Look at an Old Problem?

Patricia L. Weir

This commentary raises some issues still unresolved in the study of the reach-to-grasp movement, namely the operational definition of the components of the reach-to-grasp movement, the independence of these components, and the equivocal interpretation of the existing literature. Lastly, this commentary addresses issues pertaining to object properties that require both visual and haptic determination.

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Stand Up Now: A Sedentary Behavior Intervention in Older Adults of Moderate to Low Physical Function

Katie Thralls Butte and Susan S. Levy

current study adds to the body of knowledge by giving an additional modifiable strategy to improve physical function and extend independence. Additionally, SUN may be a good first step for inactive lower functioning older adults to progress into PA in their day. Mobility Unlike physical function, we found

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On the Nature of Stopping an Earlier Intended Voluntary Action

Tim McGarry and Ian M. Franks

The ability to inhibit an earlier intended action in a stop-signal task is commonly assessed using the measures of latency and probability. The usual findings from stop-signal trials of lower response probabilities and shorter reaction latencies at reduced stop-signal delays were reported, as described in previous studies in terms of an independent race between stochastic processes (see Logan & Cowan, 1984). In addition, using the less common measure of amplitude, a continuum of reductions in surface EMG onsets was reported. Weakened motor discharges have yet to be explained in terms of a mechanism of inhibitory control. Using computer simulations of neural functioning, the properties of independence and non-independence were examined for their effects on motor pool output in terms of probability, latency, and EMG onsets. The data provided support to question the requirement of independent processes for a theory of inhibitory control.

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The Relationship between Aquatic Independence and Gross Motor Function in Children with Neuro-Motor Impairments

Miriam Getz, Yeshayahu Hutzler, and Adri Vermeer

The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between motor performance in the aquatic setting as measured by the Aquatic Independence Measure (AIM) to motor performance on land as measured by the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) and the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI). Fourty- nine children with neuro-motor impairments ages 3 to 7 participated in the study. Pearson correlations were applied to determine the relationships between the AIM and the GMFM, PEDI, and Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS). Significant correlations were found between the total AIM and GMFM scores (r = 69, p < .01) and PEDI self-care sub-scale (r = .79, p < .01) as well as the PEDI mobility sub-scale scores (r = .35, p < .05). The water adjustment sub-scale as measured by the AIM showed the strongest relationship to motor performance on land as measured by the GMFM and PEDI in our sample of 49 children.

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Role of Cognitive Style Constructs Field Dependence-Independence and Reflection-Impulsivity in Skill Acquisition

Stephan Swinnen, Joost Vandenberghe, and Erik Van Assche

This study sought to determine the relationships between the cognitive styles field dependence-independence and reflection-impulsivity and the acquisition of a gross motor skill in an unstructured learning environment. In reference to the first cognitive style construct, it was hypothesized that field-independent subjects perform better than field-dependent subjects because they provide organization when the material to be learned lacks structure, leading them to rely on their analyzing and restructuring ability. The second construct refers to cognitive inhibition required for response uncertainty tasks as well as motor impulse inhibition. Subjects (57 boys, 65 girls) were 13-year-old junior high school students. Several visual perceptual tests were administered and gymnastic performance scores were measured at pretest, during the learning session, and posttest. The hypothesis that field-independent subjects are more successful in an unstructured learning environment than field-dependent subjects was confirmed for boys only. The correlations between the reflection-impulsivity variables and gymnastic performance were generally low, and no support could be found for the hypothesis that reflective subjects are more successful in learning the skill than impulsive subjects.