The purpose of this study was to assess the relative and absolute reliability of metabolic measures of energy expenditure and gait speed during overground walking in older adults with mobility limitations. Thirty-three (mean age [SD] = 76.4 [6.6] years; 66% female) older adults with slow gait participated. Measures of energy expenditure and gait speed were recorded during two 6-min bouts of overground walking (1 week apart) at a self-selected “usual” walking pace. The relative reliability for all variables was excellent: ICC = .81−.91. Mean differences for five of the six outcome variables was less than or equal to the respected SEM, while all six mean differences fell below the calculated MDC95. Clinicians and researchers can be confident that metabolic measures of energy expenditure and gait speed in older adults with slow walking speeds can be reliably assessed during overground walking, providing an alternative to traditional treadmill assessments.
David M. Wert, Jessie M. VanSwearingen, Subashan Perera, and Jennifer S. Brach
Karsten Koehler, Thomas Abel, Birgit Wallmann-Sperlich, Annika Dreuscher, and Volker Anneken
Inactivity and overweight are major health concerns in children and adolescents with disabilities. Methods for the assessment of activity and energy expenditure may be affected negatively by the underlying disability, especially when motor function is impaired. The purpose of this study was to assess the validity of the SenseWear Armband in adolescents with cerebral palsy and hemiparesis.
Ten volunteers (age: 13.4 ± 1.6 years) were equipped with SenseWear Armbands on the hemiparetic and nonhemiparetic side of the body. Energy expenditure was measured at rest and during treadmill exercise (speed range: 0.85 to 2.35 m/s). Indirect calorimetry served as independent reference method.
The mean error was between −0.6 and 0.8 kcal/min and there were no significant differences between SenseWear and indirect calorimetry at any speed. Differences between body sides in expenditure (mean: −0.2 to 0.0 kcal/min) and step count (mean: −3.4 to 9.7 steps/min) were not significant.
The validity of the SenseWear Armband does not appear to be negatively affected by cerebral palsy during laboratory treadmill exercise. Future field studies are necessary to assess the validity and practicability of energy expenditure and physical activity assessment in children and adolescents with physical disabilities.
Zachary C. Pope, Nan Zeng, Xianxiong Li, Wenfeng Liu, and Zan Gao
specific models of the Fitbit and Jawbone despite the rising popularity of other smartwatches (e.g., Apple Watch). Moreover, few studies have employed indirect calorimetry as the criterion EE measure—an assessment method commonly considered the ‘gold standard’ for EE measurement ( Kenney, Wilmore
Julia L. Bone and Louise M. Burke
™ activity monitors (Mini-MF; BodyMedia, Pittsburgh, PA) were worn to monitor compliance to training and to estimate total energy expenditure (SenseWear version 8; BodyMedia, Pittsburgh, PA). REE Collection Resting energy expenditure was measured using indirect calorimetry. Measurements were collected at the
Roman P. Kuster, Daniel Baumgartner, Maria Hagströmer, and Wilhelmus J.A. Grooten
an urgent need to have such a method. We therefore highly recommend analyzing whether steady-state detection algorithms for indirect calorimetry data as used in other research areas (e.g., the analysis of steady-state energy expenditure with variable walking speeds, Plasschaert, Jones, & Forward
Alicia Ann Thorp, Bronwyn A. Kingwell, Coralie English, Louise Hammond, Parneet Sethi, Neville Owen, and David W. Dunstan
To determine whether alternating bouts of sitting and standing at work influences daily workplace energy expenditure (EE).
Twenty-three overweight/obese office workers (mean ± SD; age: 48.2 ± 7.9 y, body mass index: 29.6 ± 4.0 kg/m2) undertook two 5-day experimental conditions in an equal, randomized order. Participants wore a “metabolic armband” (SenseWear Armband Mini) to estimate daily workplace EE (KJ/8 h) while working (1) in a seated work posture (SIT condition) or (2) alternating between a standing and seated work posture every 30 minutes using a sit-stand workstation (STAND-SIT condition). To assess the validity of the metabolic armband, a criterion measure of acute EE (KJ/min; indirect calorimetry) was performed on day 4 of each condition.
Standing to work acutely increased EE by 0.7 [95% CI 0.3–1.0] KJ/min (13%), relative to sitting (P = .002). Compared with indirect calorimetry, the metabolic armband provided a valid estimate of EE while standing to work (mean bias: 0.1 [–0.3 to 0.4] KJ/min) but modestly overestimated EE while sitting (P = .005). Daily workplace EE was greatest during the STAND-SIT condition (mean condition difference [95% CI]: 76 [8–144] KJ/8-h workday, P = .03).
Intermittent standing at work can modestly increase daily workplace EE compared with seated work in overweight/obese office workers.
Gianluca Vernillo, Aldo Savoldelli, Barbara Pellegrini, and Federico Schena
Accurate assessments of physical activity and energy expenditure (EE) are needed to advance research on positive and negative graded walking.
To evaluate the validity of 2 SenseWear Armband monitors (Pro3 and the recently released Mini) during graded walking.
Twenty healthy adults wore both monitors during randomized walking activities on a motorized treadmill at 7 grades (0%, ±5%, ±15%, and ±25%). Estimates of total EE from the monitors were computed using different algorithms and compared with values derived from indirect calorimetry methodology using a 2-way mixed model ANOVA (Device × Condition), correlation analyses and Bland-Altman plots.
There was no significant difference in EE between the 2 armbands in any of the conditions examined. Significant main effects for device and condition, as well as a consistent bias, were observed during positive and negative graded walking with a greater over- and under-estimation at higher slope.
Both the armbands produced similar EE values and seem to be not accurate in estimation of EE during activities involving uphill and downhill walking. Additional work is needed to understand factors contributing to this discrepancy and to improve the ability of these monitors to accurately measure EE during graded walking.
Alison L. Innerd and Liane B. Azevedo
The aim of this study is to establish the energy expenditure (EE) of a range of child-relevant activities and to compare different methods of estimating activity MET.
27 children (17 boys) aged 9 to 11 years participated. Participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 routines of 6 activities ranging from sedentary to vigorous intensity. Indirect calorimetry was used to estimate resting and physical activity EE. Activity metabolic equivalent (MET) was determined using individual resting metabolic rate (RMR), the Harrell-MET and the Schofield equation.
Activity EE ranges from 123.7± 35.7 J/min/Kg (playing cards) to 823.1 ± 177.8 J/min/kg (basketball). Individual RMR, the Harrell-MET and the Schofield equation MET prediction were relatively similar at light and moderate but not at vigorous intensity. Schofield equation provided a better comparison with the Compendium of Energy Expenditure for Youth.
This information might be advantageous to support the development of a new Compendium of Energy Expenditure for Youth.
Orjan Ekblom, Gisela Nyberg, Elin Ekblom Bak, Ulf Ekelund, and Claude Marcus
Wrist-worn accelerometers may provide an alternative to hip-worn monitors for assessing physical activity as they are easier to wear and may thus facilitate long-term recordings. The current study aimed at a) assessing the validity of the Actiwatch (wrist-worn) for estimating energy expenditure, b) determining cut-off values for light, moderate, and vigorous activities, c) studying the comparability between the Actiwatch and the Actigraph (hip-worn), and d) assessing reliability.
For validity, indirect calorimetry was used as criterion measure. ROC-analyses were applied to identify cut-off values. Comparability was tested by simultaneously wearing of the 2 accelerometers during free-living condition. Reliability was tested in a mechanical shaker.
All-over correlation between accelerometer output and energy expenditure were found to be 0.80 (P < .001).Based on ROC-analysis, cut-off values for 1.5, 3, and 6 METs were found to be 80, 262, and 406 counts per 15 s, respectively. Energy expenditure estimates differed between the Actiwatch and the Actigraph (P < .05). The intra- and interinstrument coefficient of variation of the Actiwatch ranged between 0.72% and 8.4%.
The wrist-worn Actiwatch appears to be valid and reliable for estimating energy expenditure and physical activity intensity in children aged 8 to 10 years.
Jennifer L. Huberty, Jeni L. Matthews, Meynard Toledo, Lindsay Smith, Catherine L. Jarrett, Benjamin Duncan, and Matthew P. Buman
types of yoga, poses and sequences may help individuals meet physical activity recommendations. The Oxycon Mobile measures ventilation, oxygen uptake, and respiratory exchange ( Rosdahl, Gullstrand, Salier-Eriksson, Johansson, & Schantz, 2010 ) and uses indirect calorimetry techniques to accurately