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Matthew Pearce, Tom R.P. Bishop, Stephen Sharp, Kate Westgate, Michelle Venables, Nicholas J. Wareham and Søren Brage

precise but more feasible field method are mapped to a criterion using “bridge equations” which form an indirect route (Figure  1 ). This concept is analogous to network meta-analysis in which multiple comparisons can be inferred despite not being directly tested ( Lu & Ades, 2004 ). “Network

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Keren Susan Cherian, Ashok Sainoji, Balakrishna Nagalla and Venkata Ramana Yagnambhatt

portable metabolic analyzer (Oxycon mobile; VIASYS Healthcare GmbH,  Höchberg, Germany) based on indirect calorimetry. As against a Douglas bag, it measures accurately, with a coefficient of variation of 2% to 7% across different metabolic work rates ( 52 ). It has been used as a criterion method in

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J. Len Gusthart

The purpose of this study was to investigate the variation in teaching behavior of physical educators over an instructional unit. Both inter- and intra-comparisons were made for three experienced teachers. The subjects recorded audiotapes during each of 10 lessons in a volleyball unit. The directly, indirectly, and noncontributing behaviors for each teacher were coded and described by Observation System for Content Development-Physical Education (OSCD-PE). The results indicate that most teaching behaviors were variable over the unit. There was as much variability for each teacher within the unit as between teachers over the unit.

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Menno Slingerland and Lars Borghouts

Background:

Physical education (PE) has the potential of stimulating physical activity (PA) in children and adolescents in a direct and an indirect manner. By providing in-class activity, PE could directly contribute to the accumulation of physical activity. In addition, it is often claimed that PE could have an effect on physical activity by stimulating out-of-class activity, or even physical activity in adult life.

Methods:

We reviewed intervention studies using a PE component that directly or indirectly aimed to increase physical activity in primary and secondary school students. An electronic literature search was conducted and articles’ reference lists were scanned for additional papers.

Results:

Fourteen studies matched our criteria. A review of these studies showed that interventions are able to directly increase activity in PE classes with relatively simple modifications, whereas the evidence for increasing out-of-class PA through interventions utilizing PE as a component is less convincing.

Conclusions:

We propose that evidence-based interventions aimed at increasing PA in children and adolescents through PE should at this moment be aimed at the direct effect of PE. There is a need for high quality PE-based interventions directed at out-of-class activity and long-term active life style.

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Karsten Koehler, Thomas Abel, Birgit Wallmann-Sperlich, Annika Dreuscher and Volker Anneken

Background:

Inactivity and overweight are major health concerns in children and adolescents with disabilities. Methods for the assessment of activity and energy expenditure may be affected negatively by the underlying disability, especially when motor function is impaired. The purpose of this study was to assess the validity of the SenseWear Armband in adolescents with cerebral palsy and hemiparesis.

Methods:

Ten volunteers (age: 13.4 ± 1.6 years) were equipped with SenseWear Armbands on the hemiparetic and nonhemiparetic side of the body. Energy expenditure was measured at rest and during treadmill exercise (speed range: 0.85 to 2.35 m/s). Indirect calorimetry served as independent reference method.

Results:

The mean error was between −0.6 and 0.8 kcal/min and there were no significant differences between SenseWear and indirect calorimetry at any speed. Differences between body sides in expenditure (mean: −0.2 to 0.0 kcal/min) and step count (mean: −3.4 to 9.7 steps/min) were not significant.

Conclusions:

The validity of the SenseWear Armband does not appear to be negatively affected by cerebral palsy during laboratory treadmill exercise. Future field studies are necessary to assess the validity and practicability of energy expenditure and physical activity assessment in children and adolescents with physical disabilities.

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David Alexander Leaf and Holden MacRae

The purpose of this study was to examine the criterion-related validity of two indirect measures of energy expenditure (EE): American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) predictive equations, and estimated EE based on the Caltrac accelerometer. These measures were compared in 20 community-dwelling older men and women (mean age 71 years). The strength of the relationships among major determinants of EE during self-selected speeds of treadmill and outdoor walking was also examined. EE measured by respiratory gas analysis during an exercise stress test was highly correlated with ACSM predictive equations and poorly correlated with Caltrac. Multivariate regression equations were established to evaluate the ability of independent variables—body weight and height, age, and preferred treadmill walking speed—to predict EE (dependent variable). It was concluded that the ACSM predictive equations are suitable for use in elderly individuals, and that the apparent differences in the relationships between treadmill and outdoor walking speeds on EE deserve further investigation.

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Katherine S. Hall and Edward McAuley

Background:

Few studies have examined physical activity behavior and its associated outcomes in older adults living in retirement communities. Guided by the disablement model and social cognitive theory, we tested a cross-sectional model in which physical activity was hypothesized to influence disability indirectly through self-efficacy, functional performance, and functional limitations.

Methods:

One hundred six older men and women residing in independent-living (ILF) assisted-living (ALF) facilities completed self-report measures of self-efficacy, function, and disability. Objective assessments of physical activity and functional performance were conducted using waist-mounted accelerometers and the short physical performance battery (SPPB), respectively. Path analysis was used to examine the proposed associations among constructs.

Results:

Older adults who were more active were also more efficacious and had better physical function and fewer functional limitations. Only higher levels of self-efficacy were associated with less disability. The effects of individual-level covariates were also examined.

Conclusions:

This cross-sectional study is among the first to examine the associations between physical activity, function, and disability among older adults residing in ILFs and ALFs. Future research addressing the physical and psychological needs of this growing population is warranted.

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Han Chen and Jun Dai

Background:

Using the social cognitive theory, this study aims to examine how gender moderates the direct and indirect relationships of various sources of social support on Chinese adolescents’ physical activity (PA).

Methods:

A cross-sectional study was conducted. The final data includes 396 students (55.8% are boys) who were randomly selected from 2 middle schools and 4 high schools in Fuzhou city located in southeast China. Family support, peer support, and self-efficacy (SE) were measured using validated questionnaires. Participants’ PA was assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire short form. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the data. A bootstrapping method was used to determine and compare the direct and indirect effects of social support on PA across genders.

Results:

Peer support had no direct effect on PA; rather, peer support indirectly influenced PA through SE. Gender did not moderate this mediating effect. In addition, family support had neither a direct nor an indirect effect on PA via SE, and gender did not moderate these effects.

Conclusions:

Findings suggest that peer support played a more important role than family support on study participants’ PA indirectly through SE. SE also has a similar indirect effect across genders.

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Sofie Kent, Kieran Kingston and Kyle F. Paradis

order to reflect the conceptual hypotheses of the direct and indirect effects of passion to basic needs to athlete burnout. Analysis Initially, data were screened for outliers and normality using Mahalanobis distances. Descriptive statistics were calculated to firstly enable the researchers to reflect

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Scott O. McDoniel

With the number of individuals becoming overweight or obese, health care professionals are in need of accurate, reliable, and convenient tools to help personalize weight-loss programs. Recently, a new handheld indirect calorimeter (i.e., MedGem/BodyGem; also know as “Gem”) was introduced as a convenient way to assess resting metabolic rate (RMR) to determine daily energy needs. Several validation and comparison studies were conducted to determine whether the Gem device is accurate and reliable, and results from these studies are mixed. Fourteen human studies (12 adult, 2 pediatric) were conducted, and 12 met the established criteria for this review. In all Douglas-bag (DB; n = 4) validation studies, the Gem device was not significantly different than the DB (mean difference adult ±1%, pediatric ±1%). The intra class reliability of the Gem ranged from 0.97 to 0.98, and the interclass reliability to the DB ranged from 0.91 to 0.97. Although few (n = 2) studies have demonstrated that the Gem device measures RMR significantly lower (–8.2% to 15.1%) than traditional metabolic carts, it performs very comparably (RMR values 0.1–4.0%, interclass reliability 0.76–0.92) to traditional metabolic carts in most (n = 6) of the comparison studies. Based on these data, the Gem device is a valid and reliable indirect calorimeter for energy assessment in most adults and children.