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Håvard Wiig, Thor Einar Andersen, Live S. Luteberget, and Matt Spencer

variables. The magnitude of the individual response to external load has, however, not been previously investigated. In this study we aimed, first, to model the within-player and the between-player effects of different external load variables on sRPE-TL in elite football. Second, to model the magnitude of

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Mary O. Whipple, Erica N. Schorr, Kristine M.C. Talley, Ruth Lindquist, Ulf G. Bronas, and Diane Treat-Jacobson

headings in the article). “adj3” denotes a search in which the first term is within three words of the second term (e.g., “differ* adj3 respon*” would capture the phrase “difference in individual response”). Selection of Studies To be eligible for inclusion in this review, articles had to meet the

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Thimo Wiewelhove, Constantin Thase, Marcel Glahn, Anthony Hessel, Christoph Schneider, Laura Hottenrott, Tim Meyer, Michael Kellmann, Mark Pfeiffer, and Alexander Ferrauti

interventions is commonly reported by recovery studies, including individuals who fail to show any changes in the expected direction (ie, “nonresponders”) 9 or even show a change in the opposite direction (ie, “negative-responders”). 6 This phenomenon, frequently referred to as an individual response to a

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Neil D. Clarke and Darren L. Richardson

users regardless of any withdrawal period. Therefore, consuming coffee providing 3 mg/kg 60 min prior to exercise is a practical source of caffeine prior to exercise in habitual low- and high-caffeine users. However, given the individual response to caffeine, athletes should experiment with various

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Heidi R. Thornton, Jace A. Delaney, Grant M. Duthie, and Ben J. Dascombe

compensate for large measurement errors. 10 Means and SDs should be reported, as these depict the variation in the responses, reflecting the effect of the treatment between individuals. The SD at baseline may be used to assess the magnitudes of effects and individual responses by standardization. 10 These

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Christian Cook, C. Martyn Beaven, Liam P. Kilduff, and Scott Drawer


This study aimed to determine whether caffeine ingestion would increase the workload voluntarily chosen by athletes in a limited-sleep state.


In a double-blind, crossover study, 16 professional rugby players ingested either a placebo or 4 mg/kg caffeine 1 hr before exercise. Athletes classified themselves into nondeprived (8 hr+) or sleep-deprived states (6 hr or less). Exercise comprised 4 sets of bench press, squats, and bent rows at 85% 1-repetition maximum. Athletes were asked to perform as many repetitions on each set as possible without failure. Saliva was collected before administration of placebo or caffeine and again before and immediately after exercise and assayed for testosterone and cortisol.


Sleep deprivation produced a very large decrease in total load (p = 1.98 × 10−7). Caffeine ingestion in the nondeprived state resulted in a moderate increase in total load, with a larger effect in the sleep-deprived state, resulting in total load similar to those observed in the nondeprived placebo condition. Eight of the 16 athletes were identified as caffeine responders. Baseline testosterone was higher (p < .05) and cortisol trended lower in non-sleep-deprived athletes. Changes in hormones from predose to preexercise correlated to individual workload responses to caffeine. Testosterone response to exercise increased with caffeine compared with placebo, as did cortisol response.


Caffeine increased voluntary workload in professional athletes, even more so under conditions of self-reported limited sleep. Caffeine may prove worthwhile when athletes are tired, especially in those identified as responders.

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Kristy Martin, Kevin G. Thompson, Richard Keegan, and Ben Rattray

 < .01). Physical Endurance Test There was no significant difference in the mean time to exhaustion between the control and mental exertion conditions (control: 628 ± 247 s vs. mental exertion: 601 ± 245 s, p  = .074, d  = 0.110). The individual responses were highly varied with 14 participants

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Cindy Lee, Hyejin Bang, and David J. Shonk

how its CSR activity is received by consumers. H1 : Existing corporate image will have an influence on individualsresponses toward the PTSO’s CSR activity in terms of perceived motive and change of attitude when controlled for their level of identification with the PTSO. Consumer-Specific Factor

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Filippo Dolci, Andrew E. Kilding, Tania Spiteri, Paola Chivers, Ben Piggott, Andrew Maiorana, and Nicolas H. Hart

influential factors that impact a change-of-direction economy during shuttle runs (SRE) after repeated bouts of intense sprint activity. Overall, SRE scores of the pooled group did not fluctuate significantly following RSAs; however, this was due to varied individual responses in SRE CHANGE . Specifically

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Carolina Lundqvist and Göran Kenttä

The purpose of this study was to psychometrically evaluate the Emotional Recovery Questionnaire (EmRecQ) and to describe athletes’ individual response patterns in five repeated assessments using the EmRecQ. Three samples were used. Samples 1 and 2 consisted of 192 and 379 (Mean age 16.4 years, SD = 0.7 and Mean age: 17.0 years, SD = 1.1) elite athletes from different sports. The third sample consisted of 20 (Mean age: 21.3, SD = 19.0) female elite basketball players. The EmRecQ is a 22-item questionnaire that assesses Happiness, Security, Harmony, Love, and Vitality. Results showed acceptable weighted omega reliability and construct reliability. Confirmatory factor analyses supported the a priori specified five-factor correlated model. Case profiles of repeated assessments revealed individual response patterns of the separate EmRecQ subscales that corresponded well with rated training load and total quality of recovery. The findings provide support for the EmRecQ’s psychometric properties and applied usefulness.