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Jason D. Vescovi and Greig Watson

accepted thresholds for dehydration and hypohydration, respectively. However, applying group-level data without knowing individual variation might not represent best practice. To date, only one study has examined the intraindividual variability of body mass and reported three consecutive days of morning

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Benjamin G. Serpell, Barry G. Horgan, Carmen M.E. Colomer, Byron Field, Shona L. Halson and Christian J. Cook

expectation was that the change in environment might disturb sleep quality and quantity. However, previous work did note individual variation exists and stressed the importance of assessing sleep quality and quantity on a case-by-case basis. 25 Furthermore, despite few differences being observed throughout

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Benjamin G. Serpell, Joshua Strahorn, Carmen Colomer, Andrew McKune, Christian Cook and Kate Pumpa

changes varied greatly and an interaction effect for T:C was observed following SPS, these results suggest individual variation exists. Alternatively, the difference in magnitude of change could be a function of change of response to repeat stimuli (habituation) or a combination of both (individuality and

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Stuart R. Graham, Stuart Cormack, Gaynor Parfitt and Roger Eston

measures obtained across an entire preseason macrocycle. Recently, the adequacy of using a systems model approach to predict the within-individual variation of match performance metrics across an in-season training macrocycle was investigated in professional AF. 17 The in-season models were able to

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Robert Ahmun, Steve McCaig, Jamie Tallent, Sean Williams and Tim Gabbett

to determine whether model fit was significantly improved when using GLMM in comparison with a logistic regression model, which does not account for repeated measurements or individual variations in responses. Results A total of 39 players were involved in 1862 program days during the study. There

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Stuart R. Graham, Stuart Cormack, Gaynor Parfitt and Roger Eston

microtechnology. Conclusions The main findings of this study are that variable dose-response models constructed from multiple training-load-input methods can retrospectively predict the within-individual variation of MEI/min and PR Score . Variable dose-response models were able to predict MEI/min with greater

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Edward J. Masoro

Although physiological deterioration occurs with advancing adult age, the interpretation of cross-sectional and longitudinal studies of age-changes in physiological processes are often complicated by confounders unrelated to aging. Age-associated disease is a major cause of physiological deterioration. To avoid this factor, only subjects free of discernible disease are used in many studies of what is referred to as “normal” aging. However, it is important to recognize that age-associated disease is not only a common occurrence but also an integral part of aging. Increasingly, gene-environment interactions are recognized as playing a major role in age-associated physiological deterioration, and there is great individual variation in both the rate of aging and the occurrence of age-associated physiological deterioration.

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Nancy A. Baker, Kaihua Xiu, Krissy Moehling and Zong-Ming Li

The purpose of this paper is to describe the transverse metacarpal arch (TMA) during a dynamic typing task. Static/relaxed and dynamic typing TMA were collected from 36 right-handed females with musculoskeletal discomfort using a motion capture system. While the angle of right TMA static/relaxed posture (10.1° ± 5.5°) was significantly larger than the left (8.5° ± 5.6°) (P < .05), the right dynamic posture (10.6° ± 4.3°) was not significantly different from the left (10.3° ± 5.5°) (P = .66). Within both these mean scores, there was considerable individual variation, with some subjects demonstrating very flat TMA, and some very curved. The results indicate that TMA angular postures both for static/relaxed and dynamic typing are highly variable both between individuals and between individual hands.

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Rebecca Lewthwaite

Relationships between goal related threat appraisal and competitive trait anxiety were examined in a field study with 102 9- to 15-year-old male soccer players. Questionnaires assessed (a) the frequency and intensity of somatic and cognitive symptoms of competitive trait anxiety, (b) the personal importance of various goals in youth sports, (c) children's perceptions of the extent to which these goals were endangered through sport participation, and (d) self-esteem. Correlational analyses indicated significant but weak relationships between a summary appraisal of threat to important goals and the frequency of somatic and cognitive competitive trait anxiety symptoms, and a stronger relationship between summary threat and competitive trait anxiety intensity. Greater perceived threat to effort/mastery and competitive achievement goals was reported by boys with higher, rather than lower, competitive trait anxiety. Within the sample, however, a cluster analysis revealed considerable individual variation in the degree of threat perceived with respect to each of four identified goals.

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Eldon E. Snyder

Previous studies of emotion in sport have examined team sports. The present research focuses on an individual sport—women’s collegiate gymnastics. Data were gathered during the gymnastics season of 1988-89 from 10 members of the team and its coach and trainer. The methodology included the use of photo-elicitation interviews and observations of women’s gymnastics. The emotion-work and categories of emotions described were displayed when the gymnasts were off stage, when preparing to compete, between events, and after competition. Discussion focuses on the control and management of emotions according to the “feeling rules” (i.e., the socially constructed subcultural norms of the sport). The gymnasts did display individual variations in their adherence to the feeling rules. Categories of emotion included nervousness, fear of pain and injury, frustration, and disappointment. Emotional social experiences included social psyching up and the happiness and joy associated with a successful performance. Consideration is given to some advantages and qualifications of the photo-elicitation technique.