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Collegiate Athletes’ Perceptions of the Connection Between Mental Health and Sport Performance: A Qualitative Investigation

Kelzie E. Beebe, Trent A. Petrie, Heather R. Kiefer, Lindsey E. Slavin, and Macey L. Arnold

psychology (Vol. 1, pp.  29 – 72 ). FEPSAC. Hanin , Y.L. ( 2000 ). Individual Zones of Optimal Functioning (IZOF) model: Emotion-performance relationships in sport . In Y.L. Hanin (Ed.), Emotions in sport (pp.  65 – 93 ). Human Kinetics . Hays , K. , Thomas , O. , Maynard , I. , & Bawden

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Applications of the Individual Zones of Optimal Functioning Model for the Multimodal Treatment of Precompetitive Anxiety

James J. Annesi

Effects of a precompetitive anxiety regulation system, based upon tenets of the individual zones of optimal functioning (IZOF) model, multidimensional anxiety theory, and the specific-effects hypothesis, were tested. In Phase I, case studies (3 elite adolescent tennis players) were used to analyze the IZOF model within a multidimensional state anxiety framework. In Phase II, the effectiveness of a precompetitive anxiety regulation system, based upon IZOF and the specific-effects hypothesis, was tested for enhancing match performance. Essential elements of IZOF theory were supported. In Phase II, inzone/out-of-zone A-state assessment was used to guide athletes’ treatment selections. After training athletes in prematch psychological skills designed to regulate specific cognitive state anxiety, somatic state anxiety, and state selfconfidence dimensions, posttreatment performances yielded higher values (ps < .05) than pretreatment. The need to replicate findings through different sample types, sports, and expertise levels was emphasized. Concerns with intrusion into athletes’ precompetitive routines were discussed.

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Performance Affect in Junior Ice Hockey Players: An Application of the Individual Zones of Optimal Functioning Model

Yuri Hanin and Pasi Syrjä

Individual patterns of positive–negative affect (PNA) were studied in 46 ice hockey players, ages 15–17 years. Recall idiographic scaling following the methodology of the individual zones of optimal functioning (IZOF) model was used to identify subjective emotional experiences related to each player’s successful and unsuccessful game performance. Individual zones for each emotion were then estimated using Borg’s Category Ratio (CR-10) scale. Different positive and negative emotions were functionally facilitating (20.5%), debilitating (25.3%), or both (54.2%). Significant differences were revealed only at intra- and interindividual but not at the group level. Optimal and nonoptimal zones for different emotions in different players were also individual. The data support and extend Hanin’s IZOF model to the content and intensity of PNA in ice hockey. Implications for the development of sports-specific scales, idiographic assessments, and application of the IZOF model in team sports are suggested.

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Regulating Preperformance Psychobiosocial States with Music

Thierry R.F. Middleton, Montse C. Ruiz, and Claudio Robazza

The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of music on swimmers’ preperformance psychobiosocial states. A purposeful sample of competitive swimmers (N = 17) participated in a 5-week intervention grounded in the individual zones of optimal functioning (IZOF) model. Findings showed that (a) preperformance psychobiosocial states differentiated between best and worst performances, (b) swimmers improved their ability to regulate preperformance states through the use of music, and (c) the use of music had a positive impact on swimmers’ perceived effectiveness of preperformance routines. Furthermore, swimmers’ qualitative reports indicated that music use was made more purposeful due to the introduction of a music intervention. The current study provides preliminary evidence in support of the use of music during preperformance routines as an effective tool to regulate athletes’ preperformance states. Athletes are encouraged to engage in the process of carefully selecting music in accordance with individualized profiles related to optimal performance states.

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Individual Zone of Optimal Functioning (IZOF): A Probabilistic Estimation

Akihito Kamata, Gershon Tenenbaum, and Yuri L. Hanin

The Individual Zone of Optimal Functioning (IZOF) model postulates the functional relationship between emotions and optimal performance, and aims to predict the quality of upcoming performance with respect to the pre-performance emotional state of the performer. Several limitations associated with the traditional method of determining the IZOF are outlined and a new probabilistic approach is introduced instead. To reliably determine the boundaries of the IZOF and their associated probabilistic curve thresholds, performance outcomes that vary in quality, as well as the emotional intensity associated with them, are taken into account. Several probabilistic models of varying complexity are presented, along with hypothetical and real data to illustrate the concept. The traditional and the new methods are contrasted in one actual set and two hypothetical sets of data. In all cases the proposed probabilistic method was found to show greater sensitivity and to more accurately represent the data than the traditional method. The development of the method is a first stage toward developing models that take into account the interactive nature and multidimensionality of the emotional construct, as well as the fluctuations in emotional intensity and performance throughout the competition phases (i.e., momentum).

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Effect of Preperformance Routine on Advanced Swimmers’ Performance and Motor Efficiency, Self-Efficacy, and Idiosyncratic Emotions

Veronique Richard, Justin Mason, Stacey Alvarez-Alvarado, Inbal Perry, Benoit Lussier, and Gershon Tenenbaum

optimal functioning (IZOF) model was designed around emotions’ hedonic tones and functionality ( Hanin, 2000 ). Hedonic tones refer to the positive or negative valence attributed to emotions, whereas functionality denotes the helpful or harmful impact of such emotion on performance. Thus, the four global

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Exploring “Sledging” and Interpersonal Emotion-Regulation Strategies in Professional Cricket

Paul A. Davis, Louise Davis, Samuel Wills, Ralph Appleby, and Arne Nieuwenhuys

performance outcomes on physical tasks ( Davis, Woodman, & Callow, 2010 ). In consideration of individual differences in the emotion–performance relationship, Hanin’s ( 1997 , 2000 ) individual zones of optimal functioning (IZOF) model has been one of the most widely used models in the study of the impact of

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Athletes’ Social Identities: Their Influence on Precompetitive Group-Based Emotions

Mickaël Campo, Diane Mackie, Stéphane Champely, Marie-Françoise Lacassagne, Julien Pellet, and Benoit Louvet

complexity on perceived task complexity and performance . Journal of Applied Psychology, 92 ( 5 ), 1320 – 1331 . PubMed ID: 17845088 doi:10.1037/0021-9010.92.5.1320 10.1037/0021-9010.92.5.1320 Hanin , Y.L. ( 2000 ). Individual zones of optimal functioning (IZOF) model: Emotions

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Experiences of Peak Performance in Elite American Football

Andy Gillham and Craig Stone

U.S. Olympic wrestling excellence II: Competitive cognition and affect . The Sport Psychologist, 6 ( 4 ), 383 – 402 . doi:10.1123/tsp.6.4.383 10.1123/tsp.6.4.383 Hanin , Y.L. ( 1995 ). Individual zones of optimal functioning (IZOF) model: An idiographic approach to performance anxiety . In K

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Coaches’ Perceptions of Athletes’ Psychobiosocial States: The Case of Three Tennis Coach-Athlete Dyads

Stephanie Mueller, Montse C. Ruiz, and Stiliani Ani Chroni

framework acknowledging individual differences in the experience and interpretation of emotions is the individual zones of optimal functioning (IZOF) model ( Hanin, 2007 ). According to the IZOF model, emotions are conceptualized as the core component of a person’s psychobiosocial state, which can be