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Mirko Brandes, Berit Steenbock and Norman Wirsik

.3 (2.0) kg/m 2 . Of the 42 children, 22 were boys. All children were able to speak and understand German. The measurements were conducted at the kindergarten using the available indoor and outdoor infrastructure. The children had to fast for at least 2 hours before measurement, but they were allowed to

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Owen Jeffries, Mark Waldron, Stephen D. Patterson and Brook Galna

described in professional-level time trials conducted outdoors, 14 and low-frequency fluctuations in power output have been observed during indoor flat and simulated hilly conditions. 6 , 15 However, the magnitude of power variability between different environmental conditions and the differences in

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Robin C. Puett, Dina Huang, Jessica Montresor-Lopez, Rashawn Ray and Jennifer D. Roberts

(MVPA) for at least 60 minutes per day. 3 In partial response to declining levels of physical activity levels among children, a growing body of research suggests that outdoor play in natural environments increases MVPA levels to a greater extent than indoor play among children. 4 – 6 For children aged

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Michael Whitehurst, Denise R. Groo and Lee E. Brown

Indoor play for pay centers (PPCs) have become very popular over the last decade. Due to the group format and physical design, the PPC promotes fastpaced large muscle activity that appears to increase the heart rate of prepubescent participants. The purpose of this study was to measure children’s heart rate response to self-directed play at a PPC. Fourteen boys and girls (age = 7.8 ± 1.8 years) participated in a treadmill test to determine their maximal heart rate (MHR). On a separate day these same children played freely for 20 min over a 5,000 square foot multilevel PPC while their heart rate was monitored. The average MHR obtained in the laboratory was 204 ± 1.3 bpm, while the average heart rate during free play was 158 ± 38.5 or 77% of the MHR observed in the laboratory. These results suggest that the PPC promotes an increase in heart rate among self-directed prepubescent subjects.

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Matthew Pearce, David H. Saunders, Peter Allison and Anthony P. Turner

indoor or outdoor play tend to be child directed, intermittent, and informal. 2 Young people can also accumulate physical activity during school time. Developing our awareness of how these varied contexts contribute toward daily MVPA targets is essential because each is likely to have different

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Marianne Lacharité-Lemieux and Isabelle J. Dionne

Chronic effects of two different exercise environments on self-chosen intensity and physiological adaptations were examined in postmenopausal women. Twenty-three healthy to overweight (body mass index [BMI] 22–29 kg/m2) postmenopausal women performed three weekly training sessions during 12 weeks and were assigned to either: (1) indoor training or (2) outdoor training. Body composition, metabolic profile, and physical fitness (including Vo2max, maximal strength, and endurance) were assessed pre- and postintervention. Exercise intensity was measured every week during the training. Maximum intensity decreased significantly in time only in outdoor training (p ≤ .05). Body composition and VO2max were significantly improved indoors (p ≤ .05), whereas resting blood pressure and upper body maximal strength and endurance were improved outdoors (p ≤ .05). Indoor training is associated with maintaining intensity over time and slightly higher physiological improvements than outdoor training. However, outdoor training seems promising from a long-term perspective, due to its positive effects on health parameters and exercise adherence.

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Matthew J.E. Lott and Stuart D.R. Galloway

This study assessed fluid balance, sodium losses, and effort intensity during indoor tennis match play (17 ± 2 °C, 42% ± 9% relative humidity) over a mean match duration of 68.1 ± 12.8 min in 16 male tennis players. Ad libitum fluid intake was recorded throughout the match. Sweat loss from change in nude body mass; sweat electrolyte content from patches applied to the forearm, calf, and thigh, and back of each player; and electrolyte balance derived from sweat, urine, and daily food-intake analysis were measured. Effort intensity was assessed from on-court heart rate compared with data obtained during a maximal treadmill test. Sweat rate (M ± SD) was 1.1 ± 0.4 L/hr, and fluid-ingestion rate was 1.0 ± 0.6 L/hr (replacing 93% ± 47% of fluid lost), resulting in only a small mean loss in body mass of 0.15% ± 0.74%. Large interindividual variabilities in sweat rate (range 0.3–2.0 L/hr) and fluid intake (range 0.31–2.52 L/hr) were noted. Whole-body sweat sodium concentration was 38 ± 12 mmol/L, and total sodium losses during match play were 1.1 ± 0.4 g (range 0.5–1.8 g). Daily sodium intake was 2.8 ± 1.1 g. Indoor match play largely consisted of low-intensity exercise below ventilatory threshold (mean match heart rate was 138 ± 24 beats/min). This study shows that in moderate indoor temperature conditions players ingest sufficient fluid to replace sweat losses. However, the wide range in data obtained highlights the need for individualized fluid-replacement guidance.

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Florian Herbolsheimer, Stephanie Mosler, Richard Peter and the ActiFE Ulm Study Group

outdoor locations accumulated at least half an hour more moderate-to-vigorous physical activity than persons who were physically active only in indoor locations and moved through greater life-space areas ( Kerr et al., 2012 ; Portegijs, Tsai, Rantanen, & Rantakokko, 2015 ). A recent study of 36 older

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Bruno M. Kappes and Scott J. Chapman

This field study examined the effects of indoor versus outdoor thermal biofeedback training on digital skin temperature for outdoor sports, and also tested the accuracy of estimating one's skin temperature in an outdoor environment. A sample of 25 university student volunteers (14 males and 11 females) were randomly distributed across three groups. Indoor subjects practiced exclusively indoors and outdoor subjects practiced exclusively outdoors, while control subjects did not receive any training. All pre-and posttests for all groups were conducted outdoors in an unhealed tent. Subjects were trained twice a week for 4 weeks, with twice-a-day respective indoor or outdoor home practice on nontraining days. Results indicated the post-peroid change scores of the outdoor trained group to be superior to indoor trained subjects and controls when all groups were asked to perform outdoors. Indoor subjects were only able to maintain their temperature outdoors, whereas control subjects continued to lose temperature as they did during the pretest. Interestingly, there was no significant overall temperature difference between groups, and all subjects overestimated their temperatures regardless of training. Learning to control extremity temperatures in cold environments may depend on environmental context.

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Marion E. Hambrick

SoulCycle is a $122 million company offering customers 45-min workouts in its indoor cycling studios. As one of the first boutique fitness firms to emerge in the $28.5 billion fitness industry, SoulCycle grew from one indoor cycling studio in New York City in 2006 to 67 studios across the United States by 2016. SoulCycle executives faced a pivotal moment in May 2016. Chief executive officer Melanie Whelan recognized the company faced increasing competition in the boutique fitness segment, with companies such as Flywheel and Peloton making inroads into this market. In addition, two of SoulCycle’s founders resigned from their leadership positions earlier the same year. These developments led to questions about the long-term viability of SoulCycle within the larger fitness industry. A detailed financial analysis of SoulCycle, including an examination of the company’s financial statements, financial ratios, strategic initiatives, and competitors, could provide insights about its chances for continued success.