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Inácio Crochemore M. da Silva, Grégore I. Mielke, Andréa D. Bertoldi, Paulo Sergio Dourado Arrais, Vera Lucia Luiza, Sotero Serrate Mengue and Pedro C. Hallal

Brazilian adults. We also assessed the contribution from different domains of practice for overall levels of physical activity, as well as socioeconomic and gender inequalities in leisure-time physical activity. Methods The Brazilian Survey on Medicine Access, Utilization, and Rational Use of Medicines is a

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Sofia Wolker Manta, Kelly Samara da Silva, Giovani Firpo Del Duca, Luís Eduardo A. Malheiros, Margarethe Thaisi Garro Knebel, Andressa Ferreira da Silva and Thiago Sousa Matias

important to better understand reality. 16 However, in countries such as Brazil, where social inequalities are enormous, 17 leisure PA is observed more frequently among high-income adults. Active transport is still practiced by low-income adults, as well as domestic and occupational PA 18 , 19 ; therefore

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André O. Werneck, Adewale L. Oyeyemi, Rômulo A. Fernandes, Marcelo Romanzini, Enio R.V. Ronque, Edilson S. Cyrino, Luís B. Sardinha and Danilo R. Silva

elucidate on these factors. Recently, the Global Observatory for Physical Activity, an important initiative aimed to monitor PA of adults and to inform health policy worldwide, published information from 217 countries, which highlighted inequalities around the world. 10 Although Global Observatory for

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Toben F. Nelson, Richard F. MacLehose, Cynthia Davey, Peter Rode and Marilyn S. Nanney

secondary schools in Minnesota. However, this overall increase masked some important inequalities. Schools that enrolled almost entirely white students in 2001 experienced large increases in PA at the school level, from 60.1% in 2001 to 67.5% in 2010. This finding is consistent with the overall increase in

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Moshe Semyonov

This paper challenges the popular argument that sport is an effective channel for upward mobility, especially for ethnic minorities. My study of retired professional soccer players in Israel establishes the following findings: First, members of the subordinate ethnic group are disadvantaged in attainment of status not only in schools and labor markets but also in and via sport. Second, a professional career in sport does not intervene between background variables and later occupational attainment. Third, both ethnicity and educational level are the most significant determinants of postretirement occupational attainment; higher education and higher ethnic status improve opportunities for later occupational success. On the basis of these findings it is suggested that the same rules of inequality that push individuals to seek alternative routes of mobility, such as professional sport, continue to operate in and beyond sport.

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Michael Mutz and Marlena van Munster

but some scholars also used indicators for urbanization, safety, political stability, government quality, or income inequality. 10 , 11 , 14 , 15 Moreover, country variations regarding the gender difference in sports activity have been related to general patterns of gender empowerment and inequality

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Douglas E. Foley

An ethnographic study of one football season in a small South Texas town is presented to explore the extent that community sport is, as various critical theorists have suggested, a potential site for counterhegemonic cultural practices. Football is conceptualized as a major community ritual that socializes future generations of youth. This broad, holistic description of socialization also notes various moments of ethnic resistance engendered by the Chicano civil rights movement. Other moments of class and gender resistance to the football ritual are also noted. Finally, the way players generally resisted attempts to thoroughly rationalize their sport is also described. In spite of these moments of resistance, this study ultimately shows how deeply implicated community sport—in this case high school football—is in the reproduction of class, gender, and racial inequality. The white ruling class and the town’s patriarchal system of gender relations are preserved in spite of concessions to the new ethnic challenges. When seen from a historical community perspective, sport may be less a site for progressive, counterhegemonic practices than critical sport theorists hope.

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Annelies Knoppers and Anton Anthonissen

Gender, class, and sexuality are intersecting categories of inequality and also social forces that shape meanings given to organizations, social institutions, identities, and images. The authors use Acker’s (2000) concept “regimes of inequality” to explore how gender, specifically masculinities, intersects with social class and sexuality in women’s soccer. The extent to which social relations are also situational and culturally specific can be revealed in part with the use of comparative studies. The story of women’s soccer in the Netherlands is one of struggle for resources, acceptance, visibility, and legitimization with little result, while in the United States that same struggle has resulted in visibility and the establishment of a professional women’s soccer league. In this article the authors explore several regimes of inequality that shape women’s soccer using cross-cultural comparisons.

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Alan Nevill, Paul Donnelly, Simon Shibli, Charlie Foster and Marie Murphy


The association between health and deprivation is of serious concern to many health promotion agencies. The purpose of the current study was to assess whether modifiable behaviors of physical activity (PA), sports participation, diet, smoking and body mass index (BMI) can help to explain these inequalities in a sample of 4653 respondents from Northern Ireland.


The study is based on a cross-sectional survey of Northern Irish adults. Responses to a self-rated health question were dichotomized and binary logistic regression was used to identify the health inequalities between areas of high, middle or low deprivation. These differences were further adjusted for other sociodemographic factors and subsequently for various modifiable behaviors of PA, sports participation, diet, smoking, and BMI.


Respondents from high and middle areas of deprivation are more likely to report poorer health. As soon as sociodemographic factors and other modifiable behaviors were included, these inequalities either disappeared or were greatly reduced.


Many inequalities in health in NI can be explained by the respondents’ sociodemographic characteristics that can be further explained by introducing information about respondents who meet the recommended PA guidelines, play sport, eat 5 portions of fruit and vegetables, and maintain an optimal BMI.

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Robert P. Mathner