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Rebecca F. Wiener, Sabrina L. Thurman and Daniela Corbetta

We used eye tracking to investigate where infants and adults directed their gaze on a scene right before reaching. Infants aged 5, 7, 9, and 11 months old and adults looked at a human hand holding an object out of reach for 5 s, then the hand moved the object toward the participant for reaching. We analyzed which part of the scene (the object, the hand, or elsewhere) infants and adults attended the most during those 5 s before reaching. Findings revealed that adults’ visual fixations were majorly focused on the object to reach. Young infants’ looking patterns were more widely distributed between the hand holding the object, the object, and other nonrelevant areas on the scene. Despite distributed looking on the scene, infants increased their amount of time looking at the object between 5 and 11 months. Nine- and 11-month-olds showed overall accumulated looking durations comparable to adults’ for most of the objects; however, 9-month-olds differed in their rate of gaze transition between scene areas. From the age of 5 months old, infants are able to sustain their gaze to the pertinent scene area when the scene contains a central object on which they will later be able to act.

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Andréa Baraldi Cunha, Daniele A. Soares, Alyne Montero Ferro and Eloisa Tudella

The objectives of this study were to verify the influence of a short-duration training session on proximal and distal adjustments at the onset of goal-directed reaching and to verify whether these adjustments change in specificity with the body position trained. Twenty-four infants aged 3–4 months were assessed in supine and reclined during pre and posttraining conditions. During the interval (4 min), 8 infants received reaching training in supine, 8 infants received reaching training in reclined, and 8 infants received no training. The frequencies of reaches, unimanual reaches and reaches with semiopen and oblique hand increased in the posttraining condition for all infants except control infants. Infants trained in the reclined position increased the frequencies of variables in the reclined position. Infants trained in the supine position increased the frequencies of variables in both positions. Few minutes of reaching training are effective to facilitate reaching behavior in infants at the onset of reaching. The effects are specific to the body position trained. As the training in supine requires higher torque to initiate reaching movements, it is more effective to facilitate reaches in both supine and reclined positions.

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Janet L. Hauck, Isabella T. Felzer-Kim and Kathryn L. Gwizdala

Development The Bayley Scales of Infant Development-III (BSID-III) gross motor and fine motor subtests were used to evaluate motor skill development at all time points. BSID-III is a standardized assessment used to assess several domains of infant development from birth to 42 months of age ( Bayley, 2006

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Claudia Kubicek and Gudrun Schwarzer

From birth, infants encounter an environment full of objects and learn rapidly about their spatial characteristics. According to Newcombe, Uttal, and Sauter (2013), spatial development includes (1) the development of intraobject representations with the ability to transform them by mental rotation, and (2) the development of interobject representations with the ability to find and predict certain object locations. Infants’ remarkable improvements of these two strands of spatial object processing raise the major question of which factors may drive them. In this article, we discuss the extent to which infants’ development of intra- and interobject representations is related to their emerging motor skills. In particular, we provide a review on how far infants’ development of mental object rotation ability and their ability to localize objects are related to their manual object exploration and locomotion skills. We document a bulk of evidence suggesting such a link between infants’ motor development and their spatial object processing and also discuss and critically reconsider the implications of these studies.

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Julia Dillmann, Christian-Dominik Peterlein and Gudrun Schwarzer

It was the aim of this study to examine the motor and cognitive development of infants with congenital idiopathic clubfoot, compared with typically developing infants. We repeatedly tested the gross motor, fine motor, and cognitive abilities of 12 infants with clubfoot and 12 typically developing infants at the ages of 4, 6, 9, and 12 months with the Bayley-III Scales. All infants with clubfoot were treated with the Ponseti method, which led to a restriction of normal movements of the lower extremities in the first months of life. They showed a great delay in gross motor development but not in fine motor or cognitive development. However, in the clubfoot group, we found some slight deficits in specific cognitive tasks, including problem solving and spatial memory. In addition, our results revealed significant correlations between gross and fine motor performance and cognitive performance in the control group but only between fine motor and cognitive performance in infants with clubfoot, indicating that both, fine and gross motor skills, are related to cognitive processes and can mutually replace each other to a certain degree. Further research is needed to gain a deeper understanding of clubfoot infants’ development and to clarify the need for mobility training.

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Jane E. Clark, Farid Bardid, Nancy Getchell, Leah E. Robinson, Nadja Schott and Jill Whitall

Summary In what Thelen called a “dense longitudinal” study, 9 infants were studied twice each month from the age of 1 month to 7 months. Several infants continued to be tested through month 10. The motor items from the Bayley Scales of Infant Development ( Bayley, 1969 ) were administrated every month and

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Karl M. Newell

of developmental time, the capacity for physical activities (as identified on the horizontal axis of the figure by collective variables), and their stability (depth of well). The figure presents an image as metaphor of the continuities and discontinuities of the movement forms of infant development

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Ivan A. Trujillo-Priego, Judy Zhou, Inge F. Werner, Weiyang Deng and Beth A. Smith

; Shida-Tokeshi et al., 2018 ). Hauck ( 2012 ) found that infants with higher activity counts according to 24-hour ankle accelerometer measures from one to six months of age had significantly greater raw scores on the Bayley Scales of Infant Development 3rd edition for fine and gross motor development

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James R. Chagdes, Joshua J. Liddy, Amanda J. Arnold, Laura J. Claxton and Jeffrey M. Haddad

high risk if >10% error) to help infant development researchers in determining when typical balance metrics are able to be used with a minimal error when using force-measurement technologies. While this rating system provides a starting point for understanding when between device errors will become

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Tanya Tripathi, Stacey C. Dusing, Peter E. Pidcoe, Yaoying Xu, Mary S. Shall and Daniel L. Riddle

: 29096238 doi: 10.1016/j.infbeh.2017.10.001 Hunter , J.G. , & Malloy , M.H. ( 2002 ). Effect of sleep and play positions on infant development: Reconciling developmental concerns with SIDS prevention . Newborn and Infant Nursing Reviews, 2 ( 1 ), 9 – 16 . doi: 10.1053/nbin.2002.31484 Klimo , P