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Hala Youssef, Carole Groussard, Sophie Lemoine-Morel, Christophe Jacob, Elie Moussa, Abdallah Fazah, Jean-Claude Pineau, Joel Pincemail, Josiane Cillard and Arlette Delamarche

This study aimed to determine whether aerobic training could reduce lipid peroxidation and inflammation at rest and after maximal exhaustive exercise in overweight/obese adolescent girls. Thirty-nine adolescent girls (14-19 years old) were classified as nonobese or overweight/obese and then randomly assigned to either the nontrained or trained group (12-week multivariate aerobic training program). Measurements at the beginning of the experiment and at 3 months consisted of body composition, aerobic fitness (VO2peak) and the following blood assays: pre- and postexercise lipid peroxidation (15F2a-isoprostanes [F2-Isop], lipid hydroperoxide [ROOH], oxidized LDL [ox-LDL]) and inflammation (myeloperoxidase [MPO]) markers. In the overweight/obese group, the training program significantly increased their fat-free mass (FFM) and decreased their percentage of fat mass (%FM) and hip circumference but did not modify their VO2peak. Conversely, in the nontrained overweight/obese group, weight and %FM increased, and VO2peak decreased, during the same period. Training also prevented exercise-induced lipid peroxidation and/or inflammation in overweight/obese girls (F2-Isop, ROOH, ox-LDL, MPO). In addition, in the trained overweight/obese group, exercise-induced changes in ROOH, ox-LDL and F2-Isop were correlated with improvements in anthropometric parameters (waist-to-hip ratio, %FM and FFM). In conclusion aerobic training increased tolerance to exercise-induced oxidative stress in overweight/obese adolescent girls partly as a result of improved body composition.

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Jacob D. Meyer, Mary S. Hayney, Christopher L. Coe, Cameron L. Ninos and Bruce P. Barrett

CRP in three out of six studies that measured CRP following training in mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR), but inconsistent or null findings on other circulating immune biomarkers. However, considerable research links systemic inflammation to significant effects on brain functioning ( Dantzer

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Rebecca Quinlan and Jessica A. Hill

studies have investigated the efficacy of TCJ following intermittent exercise, but these studies have yielded conflicting results. No benefits of TCJ on functional performance, markers of inflammation (interleukin 6, C-reactive protein [CRP]), or oxidative stress (uric acid) were demonstrated after water

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David C. Nieman, Courtney L. Goodman, Christopher R. Capps, Zack L. Shue and Robert Arnot

( Kempf et al., 2010 ; Liang & Kitts, 2015 ; Lopez-Garcia et al., 2006 ; Tajik et al., 2017 ). In vitro indicate that CQAs have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity, alleviate oxidative stress and inflammation in various animal disease models, and reduce related biomarkers in human clinical

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David C. Nieman, Courtney L. Capps, Christopher R. Capps, Zack L. Shue and Jennifer E. McBride

-Freeman & Sesso, 2014 ). Of all carotenoids studied in vitro, lycopene is the most effective singlet oxygen scavenger and exhibits quenching rates multiple times greater than beta-carotene and vitamin C ( Shi & Le Maguer, 2000 ). Human trials suggest that tomato carotenoid intake reduces systemic inflammation in

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Thiago R.S. Tenório, P. Babu Balagopal, Lars B. Andersen, Raphael M. Ritti-Dias, James O. Hill, Mara C. Lofrano-Prado and Wagner L. Prado

. Various biomarkers of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction have been identified and are altered in children with obesity compared with their normal weight counterparts ( 3 ). Given the high prevalence of obesity in children and adolescents, the management and/or prevention of obesity and its

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Lindy M. Castell, David C. Nieman, Stéphane Bermon and Peter Peeling

dysfunction, inflammation, oxidative stress, and muscle damage. White blood cell numbers and function, salivary IgA output, skin delayed-type hypersensitivity response, major histocompatibility complex II expression, and other biomarkers of immune function are altered for several hours, sometimes days, during

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Chantal A. Vella, Erin D. Michos, Dorothy D. Sears, Mary Cushman, Rachel B. Van Hollebeke, Michelle M. Wiest and Matthew A. Allison

, cardiovascular disease risk factors, adiposity, and markers of inflammation. Methods Participants The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) is a longitudinal cohort study of adults from 6 regions across the United States. The overall design of the MESA study has been published. 12 In brief, the cohort

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David C. Nieman, Dru A. Henson, Steven R. McAnulty, Fuxia Jin and Kendra R. Maxwell

The purpose of this study was to test the influence of 2.4 g/d fish oil n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) over 6 wk on exercise performance, inflammation, and immune measures in 23 trained cyclists before and after a 3-d period of intense exercise. Participants were randomized to n-3 PUFA (n = 11; 2,000 mg eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA], 400 mg docosahexaenoic acid [DHA]) or placebo (n = 12) groups. They ingested supplements under double-blind methods for 6 wk before and during a 3-d period in which they cycled for 3 hr/d at ~57% Wmax with 10-km time trials inserted during the final 15 min of each 3-hr bout. Blood and saliva samples were collected before and after the 6-wk supplementation period, immediately after the 3-hr exercise bout on the third day, and 14 hr postexercise and analyzed for various immune-function and inflammation parameters. Supplementation with n-3 PUFA resulted in a significant increase in plasma EPA and DHA but had no effect on 10-km time-trial performance; preexercise outcome measures; exercise-induced increases in plasma cytokines, myeloperoxidase, blood total leukocytes, serum C-reactive protein, and creatine kinase; or the decrease in the salivary IgA:protein ratio. In conclusion, 6 wk supplementation with a large daily dose of n-3 PUFAs increased plasma EPA and DHA but had no effect on exercise performance or in countering measures of inflammation and immunity before or after a 3-d period of 9 hr of heavy exertion.

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Kevin S. O’Fallon, Diksha Kaushik, Bozena Michniak-Kohn, C. Patrick Dunne, Edward J. Zambraski and Priscilla M. Clarkson

The flavonoid quercetin is purported to have potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. This study examined if quercetin supplementation attenuates indicators of exercise-induced muscle damage in a doubleblind laboratory study. Thirty healthy subjects were randomized to quercetin (QU) or placebo (PL) supplementation and performed 2 separate sessions of 24 eccentric contractions of the elbow flexors. Muscle strength, soreness, resting arm angle, upper arm swelling, serum creatine kinase (CK) activity, plasma quercetin (PQ), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and C-reactive protein (CRP) were assessed before and for 5 d after exercise. Subjects then ingested nutrition bars containing 1,000 mg/d QU or PL for 7 d before and 5 d after the second exercise session, using the opposite arm. PQ reached 202 ± 52 ng/ml after 7 d of supplementation and remained elevated during the 5-d postexercise recovery period (p < .05). Subjects experienced strength loss (peak = 47%), muscle soreness (peak = 39 ± 6 mm), reduced arm angle (–7° ± 1°), CK elevations (peak = 3,307 ± 1,481 U/L), and arm swelling (peak = 11 ± 2 mm; p < .0001), indicating muscle damage and inflammation; however, differences between treatments were not detected. Eccentric exercise did not alter plasma IL-6 (peak = 1.9 pg/ml) or CRP (peak = 1.6 mg/L) relative to baseline or by treatment. QU supplementation had no effect on markers of muscle damage or inflammation after eccentric exercise of the elbow flexors.