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Liina Remmel, Vallo Tillmann, Eva Mengel, Pille Kool, Priit Purge, Evelin Lätt and Jaak Jürimäe

have shown that increased levels of inflammatory markers [interleukin (IL)-6 and C-reactive protein (CRP)] are associated with increased risk of developing coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus, including an increased risk of developing depression and psychosis later in life ( 6 , 13 , 22

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Eric P. Plaisance, J. Kyle Taylor, Sofiya Alhassan, Asheber Abebe, Michael L. Mestek and Peter W. Grandjean

Inflammatory markers such as C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen, and white-blood-cell (WBC) count are strongly associated with cardiovascular disease. The authors’ purpose was to compare the inflammatory response to a single aerobic-exercise session between individuals of high and moderate fitness. Ten apparently healthy highly ft and 11 moderately ft men expended 500 kcal at 70% of VO2peak. Fasting blood samples were obtained on 2 consecutive days before and again at 24, 72, and 120 h post exercise. Blood samples were analyzed for CRP, fibrinogen, and WBC count. CRP was 76% lower at baseline in the highly ft group than in the moderately ft group (P = 0.03). CRP, fibrinogen, and WBC count remained unaltered, however, in the days after exercise (P > 0.05 for all). These findings suggest that markers of inflammation are stable in the days after a single session of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise in apparently healthy men of at least average fitness.

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Alexei Wong, Marcos A. Sanchez-Gonzalez, Won-Mok Son, Yi-Sub Kwak and Song-Young Park

, vasoactive substances, inflammatory markers, IR, and body composition in obese adolescent girls. We hypothesized that 12 weeks of CET would reduce arterial stiffness, C-reactive protein, and IR, which would be accompanied by improved vasoactive substances levels and decreased central adiposity. Material and

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Eduardo Federighi Baisi Chagas, Mariana Rotta Bonfim, Bruna Camilo Turi, Nair Cristina Margarida Brondino and Henrique Luiz Monteiro

Background:

Declines in ovarian function in postmenopausal women may contribute to increase inflammatory cytokines, which can lead to chronic diseases. However, studies have shown that exercise interventions are important to manage inflammatory conditions. Thus, the objective of this study was to analyze the effect of exercise intervention on inflammatory markers among obese and postmenopausal women.

Methods:

70 women composed the sample (Exercise group [EG; n = 35] and nonexercise group [nEG; n = 35]). IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-10 were the inflammatory markers analyzed. Exercise program was 20 weeks long and consisted of aerobic and neuromuscular training. Data about chronic diseases, medication use, dietary intake, body composition and biochemical variables were collected.

Results:

EG showed significant reductions in body mass index, waist circumference and body fat percentage, as well as increased lean body mass. EG showed significant reductions in TNF-α and significant interaction between group and intervention time. Reductions in IL-10 were identified only in nEG. Substantial effect of exercise intervention was observed with increased ratio of IL-10/IL-6 and IL-10/TNF-α.

Conclusions:

Combination of aerobic exercise and resistance training was effective in reducing inflammation. Thus, implementation and maintenance of similar exercise programs can contribute to reduce chronic inflammation among obese postmenopausal women.

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Maple Liu and Brian W. Timmons

The adaptive effects of exercise-induced inflammation and reactive oxygen species production has been well studied in adults, but not in children. Characterizing the exercise responses in children compared with adults will start clarifying the transition from the child phenotype to that of an adult. Ten children aged 8–10 and 12 adults aged 19–21 performed 2 × 30-min bouts of continuous cycling, separated by a 6-min rest period, at a target work rate of 60% of their maximum aerobic capacity. Blood samples were collected pre- and immediately postexercise, and analyzed for neutrophil count, systemic oxidative and inflammatory markers, and intracellular neutrophil-derived reactive oxygen species. Although postexercise absolute neutrophils increased by approximately twofold in men (2.72 ± 0.49 × 109/L to 4.85 ± 2.05 × 109/L; p = .007), boys showed no such change (3.18 ± 0.67 × 109/L to 3.57 ± 0.73 × 109/L; p = .52). Contrary to these findings, boys did show an increase in overall intracellular neutrophil ROS production, whereas men did not. Boys also demonstrated higher overall protein carbonyl levels (0.07 nmol/mg vs 0.04 nmol/mg; boys vs men respectively), whereas men showed higher overall malondialdehyde (0.24 μM vs 0.67 μM; boys vs men respectively). The differences observed in the exercise-induced inflammatory and oxidative stress response may indicate growth-mediated adaptive responses to exercise during childhood development.

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Gina Many, Maria-Eugenia Hurtado, Charles Tanner, Joseph Houmard, Heather Gordish-Dressman, Jung-Jun Park, Gabriel Uwaifo, William Kraus, James Hagberg and Eric Hoffman

We initiated a pilot study to investigate the effects of 8 wks of aerobic exercise training (ET) on insulin sensitivity and inflammatory markers in obese and insulin-resistant minority adolescents. Eleven morbidly obese (BMI 41.4 ± 1.8 kg/m2) minority adolescents were entered into a supervised ET intervention (~180 min/wk at 40–55%VO2PeakR [(VO2Peak − VO2Rest)/VO2Rest]). The effects of training on insulin sensitivity (SI), inflammation and other metabolic syndrome features were examined. Results: Insulin action improved in response to training, as indicated by a ~37% increase in SI (p = .018). Plasma levels of several proinflammatory cytokines were reduced in response to ET, as indicated by significant decrements in sTNF-R, CCL2, MPO, IL-6, resistin, and leptin, with no significant changes in hsCRP. ET induced reductions in BMI and percent total body fat. Conclusions: The present study supports the efficacy of ET interventions on metabolic syndrome features in morbidly obese minority youth.

Nosotros iniciamos un estudio piloto para investigar los efectos de 8 semanas de entrenamiento con ejercicios aeróbicos (EA) sobre la sensibilidad insulinica y los marcadores inflamatorios en un grupo minoritario de adolescentes abesos con resistencia a lá insulina. Once adolescentes con obesidad mórbida (IMC 41, 4+1.8kg/m2) fueron asignados a un grupo de intervención que realizo un EA supervisado (~180 min/semana al 40-55%VO2 picoR [(VO2Pico − VO2Reposo)/VO2Reposo]). Se analizo el efecto del entrenamiento sobre la sensibilidad insulinica (IS), inflamación y otras características del síndrome metabòlico. RESULATDOS: El incremento del 37% en la SI (p = 0.018) indico que La acción de la insulina mejora en respuesta al entrenamiento. Como indican la disminución significativa de sTNF-R, CCL2, MPO, IL-6, resistina, and leptina, y la falta de cambios significativos en hsCR, los niveles plasmáticos de varias citoquinas proinflamatorias se redujeron en respuesta al EA. Además, el entrenamiento produjo una reducción del IMC y del porcentaje de grasa corporal. CONCLUSIONES: Los resultados del presente estudio apoyan la eficacia de una intervención con EA sobre las características del síndrome metabólico en un grupo minoritario de adolescentes con obesidad mórbida.

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Mette S. Nielsen, Jonas S. Quist, Jean-Philippe Chaput, Stine-Mathilde Dalskov, Camilla T. Damsgaard, Christian Ritz, Arne Astrup, Kim F. Michaelsen, Anders Sjödin and Mads F. Hjorth

Background:

Inflammatory markers, adiponectin, and movement/nonmovement behaviors have all been linked to risk factors for cardiovascular disease; however, the association between childhood movement/nonmovement behaviors and inflammatory markers and adiponectin is unknown.

Methods:

We explored the association between accelerometer determined moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), sedentary time, and sleep (7 days/8 nights) and fasting C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and adiponectin in 806 school children. A sleep variability score was calculated.

Results:

MVPA was negatively associated with adiponectin in boys and girls (P < .001) and with CRP and IL-6 in girls (P < .05) independent of sleep duration, sedentary time, age, fat mass index (FMI), and pubertal status. Sedentary time was positively associated with adiponectin in boys and girls (both P < .001), and sleep duration with adiponectin in boys independent of age, FMI, and pubertal status (P < .001); however, these associations disappeared after mutual adjustments for movement behavior. Sleep duration variability was positively associated with CRP in girls independent of all covariates (P < .01).

Conclusion:

MVPA remained negatively associated with inflammatory markers and adiponectin, and sleep duration variability positively associated with CRP after adjustment for FMI, pubertal status, and other movement behavior. The inverse association between MVPA and adiponectin conflicts with the anti-inflammatory properties of adiponectin.

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Lee Smith, Brendon Stubbs, L. Hu, Nicola Veronese, Davy Vancampfort, Genevieve Williams, Domenico Vicinanza, Sarah E. Jackson, Li Ying, Guillermo F. López-Sánchez and Lin Yang

effects of physical activity. 6 – 8 An important and well-studied inflammatory marker is C-reactive protein (CRP), a protein found in blood plasma. The level of CRP, which can be measured in your blood, increases when there is inflammation in your body. Importantly, CRP has been shown to be inversely

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Elaine M. Murtagh, Colin Boreham, Alan Nevill, Gareth Davison, Tom Trinick, Ellie Duly, Mawloud El-Agnaf and Marie H. Murphy

Background:

Markers of inflammation are emerging as novel indices of cardiovascular risk. These markers have been shown to alter acutely after intense exercise; however, the effects of more moderate intensity exercise in healthy individuals is not known. Walking forms a cornerstone of physical activity promotion, so the inflammatory response to this exercise merits investigation. This study evaluated the effects of a 45-min walk on C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin 6 (IL-6), in sedentary, overweight men.

Methods:

Fifteen men (49.7 ± 5.9 y) walked for 45 min at 60 to 70% of predicted maximum heart rate. Fasted blood samples were taken prior to and immediately 1 hr and 24 h post-walk.

Results:

IL-6 decreased from 1 h post-walk to 24 h post-walk (P < 0.01). No significant changes were observed in CRP.

Conclusions:

These findings suggest that 45 min walking at 60 to 70% HRmax-p causes a decrease in IL-6 24 h post-exercise, but does not evoke a significant response in CRP levels.

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Anna Skarpanska-Stejnborn, Lucja Pilaczynska-Szczesniak, Piotr Basta, Ewa Deskur-Smielecka, Donata Woitas-Slubowska and Zdzislaw Adach

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of plant superoxide dismutase extract (GliSODin) supplementation on the balance of oxidants and antioxidants in the serum and erythrocytes of competitive rowers. The double-blinded study included 19 members of the Polish rowing team who were participating in a preparatory camp. Subjects were randomly assigned to the supplemented group (n = 10), who received 2 capsules (500 mg) of GliSODin extract once daily for 6 weeks, or the placebo group (n = 9). At the beginning and end of the study, subjects performed a 2,000-m maximum-effort test on a rowing ergometer. Blood samples were taken from the antecubital vein before each exercise test, 1 min after completing the test, and after a 24-hr restitution period. The following redox parameters were assessed in erythrocytes: superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, glutathione peroxidase activity, and concentrations of thiobarbituric-acid-reactive substances. In addition, creatine kinase activity and total antioxidant capacity were measured in plasma samples, lactate levels were determined in capillary blood samples, and C-reactive protein and lactate dehydrogenase concentrations were measured in serum. After supplementation, SOD activity was significantly higher (p = .0037) in the supplemented group than the placebo group, and C-reactive protein was significantly (p = .00001) lower in athletes receiving GliSODin than those in the placebo group. In conclusion, supplementation with an extract rich in SOD activity promoted antioxidant status and protected against increased inflammation in the serum of professional rowers but had no effect on oxidative damage induced by exhaustive exercise.