parts. We set the scene for Part One with a brief summary of the first three historical periods from Clark and Whitall’s paper ( 1989 ). We then revise the original fourth period (the process-oriented period) into two separate, but largely, sequential periods: (1) the information processing period (1970
Jill Whitall, Nadja Schott, Leah E. Robinson, Farid Bardid, and Jane E. Clark
James W. Roberts, James Lyons, Daniel B. L. Garcia, Raquel Burgess, and Digby Elliott
The multiple process model contends that there are two forms of online control for manual aiming: impulse regulation and limb-target control. This study examined the impact of visual information processing for limb-target control. We amalgamated the Gunslinger protocol (i.e., faster movements following a reaction to an external trigger compared with the spontaneous initiation of movement) and Müller-Lyer target configurations into the same aiming protocol. The results showed the Gunslinger effect was isolated at the early portions of the movement (peak acceleration and peak velocity). Reacted aims reached a longer displacement at peak deceleration, but no differences for movement termination. The target configurations manifested terminal biases consistent with the illusion. We suggest the visual information processing demands imposed by reacted aims can be adapted by integrating early feedforward information for limb-target control.
Greg Anson, Digby Elliott, and Keith Davids
Since the middle of the nineteenth century, movement scientists have been challenged to explain processes underlying the control, coordination, and acquisition of skill. Information processing and constraints-based approaches represent two distinct, often perceived as opposing, views of skill acquisition. The purpose of this article is to compare information processing and constraints-based approaches through the lens of Fitts’ three-stage model and Newell’s constraints-based model, respectively. In essence, both models can be identified, at least in spirit, with ideas about skill described by Bernstein (1967, 1996). Given that the product of “skill acquisition” is the same, although the explanation of the processes might differ, it is perhaps not surprising that similarities between the models appear greater than the differences. In continuing to meet the challenge to explain skill acquisition, neural-based models provide a glimpse of the cutting edge where behavior and biological mechanisms underpinning processes of control, coordination, and acquisition of skill might meet.
Danica Janicijevic and Amador Garcia-Ramos
Volitional reaction time (RT) is defined as the elapsed time between the presentation of a sensory stimulus (i.e., visual, auditory, or tactile) and the subsequent behavioral response ( Shelton & Kumar, 2010 ). The RT has been frequently used as a measure of the speed of information processing
Michael Ashford, Andrew Abraham, and Jamie Poolton
empirical work, there is no single view on how players make decisions ( Araújo et al., 2019 ; Raab & Araújo, 2019 ; Williams & Jackson, 2019 ); instead, three, supposedly distinct, research perspectives have emerged: information processing, ecological psychology , and naturalistic decision making
Robert W. Christina
By 1967, motor control and learning researchers had adopted an information processing (IP) approach. Central to that research was understanding how movement information was processed, coded, stored, and represented in memory. It also was centered on understanding motor control and learning in terms of Fitts’ law, closed-loop and schema theories, motor programs, contextual interference, modeling, mental practice, attentional focus, and how practice and augmented feedback could be organized to optimize learning. Our constraints-based research from the 1980s into the 2000s searched for principles of “self-organization”, and answers to the degrees-of-freedom problem, that is, how the human motor system with so many independent parts could be controlled without the need for an executive decision maker as proposed by the IP approach. By 2007 we were thinking about where the IP and constraints-based views were divergent and complementary, and whether neural-based models could bring together the behavior and biological mechanisms underlying the processes of motor control and learning.
Ing-Shiou Hwang, Chia-Ling Hu, Wei-Min Huang, Yi-Ying Tsai, and Yi-Ching Chen
might be considered for the patients with information-processing disorders such as attention deficit ( Shiels & Hawk, 2010 ), early dementia ( Ito & Kitagawa, 2005 ), Parkinson’s disease ( Willemssen, Müller, Schwarz, Hohnsbein, & Falkenstein, 2008 ), and so on, in the related visuomotor training task
In this study, experienced physical education teachers’ observation skills in teaching situations are compared to that of first- and last-year student teachers. The 56 participants were shown 12 slides from a gymnastics lesson, and after viewing it for 4 s, they were asked to report what they had seen. The number of items and critical events reported were analyzed. No significant differences were found between the three groups on the number of events reported or for the number and duration of the eye fixations. Significant differences were found for the number of critical events reported and fixated. Last-year students and experienced teachers correctly reported more critical events on the slide scenes than first year students, but there were no significant differences in observational capacities between last year students and experienced teachers. This study demonstrated the need for observational training, not only during preservice, but also for inservice teachers.
Claude Goulet, Chantai Bard, and Michelle Fleury
Two experiments were conducted to analyze the performance of expert and novice tennis players. For testing purposes, 16-mm films were used. Subjects in both studies had to identify the type of serve presented (flat, top-spin, sliced). In Experiment 1, visual search patterns were investigated. During the ritual phase, experts focus on the shoulder/trunk areas whereas novices concentrate their search around the head of the server. During the execution phase, experts concentrate on the racquet whereas novices use more cues. Using the technique of temporal visual occlusion, the speed and accuracy of decisional processes were investigated in a second study. Results showed that expert players select valuable information during the preparatory phase and during the first part of. the execution phase. Novices must see the ritual phase until ball/racquet impact to be as accurate. Results emphasize the importance of combining sampling of eye movement and behavior parameters to sharpen our understanding of the perceptual processes underlying motor sport performance.
Cheryl M. Glazebrook
new perspectives is seen in the contributions of two major theories in motor control and learning: schema theory and dynamical-systems theory. There is no question that dynamical-systems theory and information-processing theory (including schema theory) have had a tremendous impact and shaped much of