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Kirsi E. Keskinen, Merja Rantakokko, Kimmo Suomi, Taina Rantanen, and Erja Portegijs

), and the availability of public transport ( Barnett et al., 2017 ; Van Cauwenberg et al., 2018 ) were associated with higher levels of PA. Physical activity was also higher in the presence of favorable features of the pedestrian infrastructure, including the availability of resting places ( Cerin et

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Emily A. Hall, Dario Gonzalez, and Rebecca M. Lopez

collegiate athletic training is limited. There are currently three models of organizational infrastructure in the collegiate athletic training setting: the traditional athletics model, the academic model, and the medical model. 5 The traditional model is defined as having the athletic training staff as part

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Jay Coakley

infrastructure, the production of significant knowledge, and the diversity of scholars—are identified in this section and discussed in connection with the external factors that have influenced them and the sociology of sport. Global Growth Over the last 40 years, the sociology of sport has attracted more

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Thomas Gotschi

Background:

Promoting bicycling has great potential to increase overall physical activity; however, significant uncertainty exists with regard to the amount and effectiveness of investment needed for infrastructure. The objective of this study is to assess how costs of Portland’s past and planned investments in bicycling relate to health and other benefits.

Methods:

Costs of investment plans are compared with 2 types of monetized health benefits, health care cost savings and value of statistical life savings. Levels of bicycling are estimated using past trends, future mode share goals, and a traffic demand model.

Results:

By 2040, investments in the range of $138 to $605 million will result in health care cost savings of $388 to $594 million, fuel savings of $143 to $218 million, and savings in value of statistical lives of $7 to $12 billion. The benefit-cost ratios for health care and fuel savings are between 3.8 and 1.2 to 1, and an order of magnitude larger when value of statistical lives is used.

Conclusions:

This first of its kind cost-benefit analysis of investments in bicycling in a US city shows that such efforts are cost-effective, even when only a limited selection of benefits is considered.

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Jack L. Nasar and Christopher H. Holloman

Background:

The research sought to find the salient perceived characteristics of playgrounds for African-American children and their parents, and to test effects of changes in those characteristics on playground choice.

Methods:

Thirty-one African-American children and their parents sorted 15 photographs of playgrounds for similarity. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling on the similarity scores and correlations between the resulting dimensions and judged characteristics of each playground revealed salient perceived characteristics. Study 2 had 40 African-American children and their parents view pairs of photographs, manipulated on the salient characteristics, and pick the one to play on (child question) or for the child to play on (parent question). A third study inventoried and observed children’s activities in 14 playgrounds.

Results:

Study 1 found seats, fence, playground type, and softness of surface as salient perceived characteristics of the playground. Study 2 found that participants were more likely to pick playgrounds with equipment and playgrounds with a softer surface. Study 3 found higher levels of physical activity for playground settings with equipment.

Conclusions:

The findings confirm correlational findings on the desirability of equipment and safety. Communities need to test the effects of changes in playgrounds.

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Margaret McGladrey, Angela Carman, Christy Nuetzman, and Nicole Peritore

be a complicated endeavor. The challenges of coalition building are heightened in rural areas of the United States due to geographic isolation as well as deficits in infrastructure, public transportation, health care providers, and funding. 11 Although a variety of models 12 – 16 exist to provide

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Alison Doherty and Graham Cuskelly

human resources, infrastructure, finance, planning and development, and relationships and network capacity ( Balduck, Lucidarme, Marlier, & Willem, 2015 ; Cordery, Sim, & Baskerville, 2013 ; Swierzy et al., 2018 ; Wicker & Breuer, 2011 , 2013 , 2014 , 2015 ; Wicker, Breuer, Lampert, & Fischer

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Kate Oldridge-Turner, Margarita Kokkorou, Fiona Sing, Knut-Inge Klepp, Harry Rutter, Arnfinn Helleve, Bryony Sinclair, Louise Meincke, Giota Mitrou, Martin Wiseman, and Kate Allen

, environments; design guidelines; planning policies; road safety measures; open space and infrastructure; fiscal measures; and implementing programs to increase physical activity, such as workplace programs, mass participation programs, community initiatives, school programs, active transport programs, and

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Per G. Svensson, Fredrik O. Andersson, and Lewis Faulk

capacity to consist of dimensions related to human, financial, process and infrastructure, relationships and network, and planning and development capacities. To date, some researchers have begun to examine capacity in SDP using this framework (e.g., Svensson & Hambrick, 2016 ; Svensson et al., 2017

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Mika R. Moran, Perla Werner, Israel Doron, Neta HaGani, Yael Benvenisti, Abby C. King, Sandra J. Winter, Jylana L. Sheats, Randi Garber, Hadas Motro, and Shlomit Ergon

route (M = 0.12 vs. M = 0.04, t [58] = 1.82, p  = .074). Perceived Barriers to and Facilitators of the Walking Routes Content analysis Content analyses yielded four themes and several subthemes that were described as related to walking: (1) pedestrian infrastructure (i.e., sidewalk condition, blocked