encompasses cognitive processes that are thought to drive goal-directed behavior. 17 The core processes thought to comprise cognitive control include attentional inhibition (the ability to resist distractions to maintain focus); working memory (the ability to store, maintain, and manipulate information to be
Nicholas W. Baumgartner, Anne M. Walk, Caitlyn G. Edwards, Alicia R. Covello, Morgan R. Chojnacki, Ginger E. Reeser, Andrew M. Taylor, Hannah D. Holscher and Naiman A. Khan
Linda Paschen, Tim Lehmann, Miriam Kehne and Jochen Baumeister
monitoring of complex, goal-directed processes involved in perception, memory, and action ( 10 , 13 ). The 3 interrelated and interacting core domains of EF are inhibition, working memory, and cognitive flexibility ( 9 , 10 ). In this context, inhibition describes a deliberate suppression of distracting
Ines Pfeffer and Tilo Strobach
, 2012 ; Miyake et al., 2000 ) systematized the complexity of different situations and processes involving the executive function construct primarily in three domains: inhibition , updating , and shifting . Inhibition is related to deliberate overriding of dominant or prepotent responses, updating
Jane Jie Yu, Chia-Liang Tsai, Chien-Yu Pan, Ru Li and Cindy Hui-Ping Sit
study found that inhibition was significantly strengthened in young children who had received a PA intervention. 10 As one feature of executive function, inhibition in the attention process is a higher level function to resolve the conflict among visual stimuli and inhibit task-inappropriate responses
Sanne L.C. Veldman, Rachel A. Jones, Rebecca M. Stanley, Dylan P. Cliff, Stewart A. Vella, Steven J. Howard, Anne-Maree Parrish and Anthony D. Okely
(Mr. Ant), inhibition (Go/No-Go), and shifting (Card-Sorting). These measures were designed to be brief (∼5 min) and engaging. In Mr Ant, working memory was assessed by asking the children to remember the spatial locations of an increasing number of stickers placed on a cartoon ant, and then to
Katherine G. Holste, Alia L. Yasen, Matthew J. Hill and Anita D. Christie
The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of a cognitive task on motor cortex excitability and inhibition. Transcranial magnetic stimulation of the motor cortex was performed on 20 healthy individuals (18–24 years; 9 females) to measure motor evoked potentials (MEPs) and cortical silent periods at baseline, during, and following a secondary cognitive task. The MEP amplitude increased from 0.50 ± 0.09–0.87 ± 0.50 mV during a secondary cognitive task (p = .04), and returned to baseline (0.48 ± 0.31 mV; p = .90) posttask. The CSP duration also increased from 93.48 ± 28.76–113.6 ± 33.68 ms (p = .001) during the cognitive task, and returned to baseline posttask (89.0 ± 6.9 ms; p = .88). In the presence of a cognitive task, motor cortex excitability and inhibition were both increased relative to baseline. The increase in inhibition may help to explain the motor deficits experienced while performing a secondary cognitive task.
J. Ty Hopkins and Christopher D. Ingersoll
To define the concept of arthrogenic muscle inhibition (AMI), to discuss its implications in the rehabilitation of joint injury, to discuss the neurophysiologic events that lead to AMI, to evaluate the methods available to measure AM1 and the models that might be implemented to examine AMI, and to review therapeutic interventions that might reduce AMI.
The databases MEDLINE, SPORTDiscus, and CIHNAL were searched with the terms reflex inhibition, joint mechanoreceptor, Ib interneuron, Hoffmann reflex, effusion, and joint injury. The remaining citations were collected from references of similar papers.
AMI is a limiting factor in the rehabilitation of joint injury. It results in atrophy and deficiencies in strength and increases the susceptibility to further injury. A therapeutic intervention that results in decreased inhibition, allowing for active exercise, would lead to faster and more complete recovery.
Luciana Brondino, Esther Suter, Hae-Dong Lee and Walter Herzog
Muscle inhibition (MI) in human knee extensors increases with increasing maximal voluntary force as a function of knee angle. It was speculated that this angle-dependent MI was modulated by force-dependent feedback, likely Golgi tendon organ pathways. Such angle-dependent MI is of clinical and theoretical importance. The purpose of this study was to determine MI in human elbow flexors for maximal voluntary contractions. Muscle inhibition, elbow flexor force, and electromyographic (EMG) activity were measured in 31 volunteers at elbow angles between 30º and 120º. MI and elbow flexor EMG were the same at all elbow angles. Maximal isometric forces were greatest at the 70º angle, and never fell below 70% of the peak force at any of the tested angles. From these results it is concluded that force-dependent modulation of MI did not occur in the elbow flexors, possibly because maximal isometric force remained relatively close (within 30%) to the peak force. In contrast, force-dependent modulation of MI occurred in the knee extensors at the most extended angles, when the average knee extensor force had dropped to 50% or less of the maximal knee extensor force. It is likely that human maximal voluntary contractions are not associated with a given activation. Rather, activation appears to be modulated by force-dependent feedback at force levels below 70% of the absolute peak force, which manifests itself in a change of MI that parallels the level of maximal isometric force in voluntary contractions.
Steve Hansen, James L. Lyons and Katherine M. Keetch
This study examined the performance of the upper limbs during responses to previously cued and un-cued locations. Participants made unimanual and bimanual responses under homologous and non-homologous muscular control, within a cuetarget (Experiment 1; n = 10), and a target-target (Experiment 2; n = 10) aiming protocol. The inhibition of return (IOR) to a target location was expected to increase with (a) an increase in the organization of the movement response required, and (b) the decrease in the muscular coupling under which the bimanual movement was performed. IOR was observed in both experiments when participants completed their movements in either the unimanual or homologous conditions, but not in the non-homologous condition. In addition, reaction times were significantly shorter when a movement preceded the response than when no manual response was made to the initial visual cue. The results indicate that common processing delays in response to exogenously cued targets are dependent on the muscular control of those responses. Thus, this study provides evidence that IOR is moderated by the muscular control under which the bimanual movement was performed indicating an influential involvement of the motor system in both the movement planning and movement response to multiple target stimuli.
Emmanuel Ducrocq, Mark Wilson, Sam Vine and Nazanin Derakshan
Attentional control is a necessary function for the regulation of goal-directed behavior. In three experiments we investigated whether training inhibitory control using a visual search task could improve task-specific measures of attentional control and performance. In Experiment 1 results revealed that training elicited a near-transfer effect, improving performance on a cognitive (antisaccade) task assessing inhibitory control. In Experiment 2 an initial far-transfer effect of training was observed on an index of attentional control validated for tennis. The principal aim of Experiment 3 was to expand on these findings by assessing objective gaze measures of inhibitory control during the performance of a tennis task. Training improved inhibitory control and performance when pressure was elevated, confirming the mechanisms by which cognitive anxiety impacts performance. These results suggest that attentional control training can improve inhibition and reduce taskspecific distractibility with promise of transfer to more efficient sporting performance in competitive contexts.