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Weidong Li, Zan Gao, Zhihua Yin, Ping Xiang, Bo Shen and Qingtao Kong

Purpose:

This study examined the impact of published national physical activity (PA) and health guidelines, documents, and initiatives on the evolution of research on teaching K-12 physical education (PE) in U.S.A. from 1996 to October 2013.

Methods:

A total of 262 peer-reviewed, data-based journal articles meeting our inclusion and exclusion criteria were identified through a comprehensive search. These articles were coded and the resulting data were analyzed.

Results and Discussions:

The findings showed that 41% (108 out of 262) of articles had cited these identified guidelines, documents and Centers for Disease Controls and Prevention (CDC) reports. In particular, the most frequently cited documents were Healthy People documents, the 1996 Report of Surgeon General, and CDC reports and studies. The citation of these guidelines, documents and CDC reports fluctuated over the years. Our findings also showed that among the research studies citing these national documents and reports, 56% of them focused on students’ PA/fitness, while only a few studies focused on students’ psycho-motor skills and game performance. The majority of the studies reviewed were nonexperimental quantitative studies while 10% using randomized control trials or randomized group control trials design.

Conclusion:

The results revealed a substantial proportion of articles cited national guidelines, initiatives and CDC study reports. These guidelines and documents have had some impact on the evolution of research on teaching K-12 PE.

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Chris Hopkins

using objectively measured physical activity and functional performance in adults with or at high risk of developing OA. Methods Data Source Data used in the preparation of this article were obtained from the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI) database, which is available for public access at http

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Cindy Lynn Salazar-Collier, Belinda Reininger, Rose Gowen, Arturo Rodriguez and Anna Wilkinson

Open streets initiatives, such as Ciclovías, are events where city streets are temporarily closed to motorized traffic allowing city residents the opportunity to engage in physical activity (PA) freely. 1 Ciclovías originated in Bogotá, Colombia, where every Sunday 70 miles of city streets are

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Jill A. Kuhlberg, J. Aaron Hipp, Amy Eyler and Genevieve Chang

Background:

The ciclovía, or open streets concept, is a community-level physical activity (PA) promotion strategy where streets are closed to motorized traffic and open for individuals to engage in PA. This paper presents an overview of such initiatives in the United States (US) to understand their potential in PA promotion, comparing event and city characteristics.

Methods:

We searched ciclovía and open streets initiatives held in 2011 in the US using internet searches, publication databases, social media, and personal contacts. We extracted data on the each initiative’s frequency, route length, attendance, evaluation procedures, and sociodemographic characteristics of host cities.

Results:

Our search yielded 47 US cities with open streets in 2011. Cities were diverse in sociodemographic characteristics. Route lengths ranged from a few blocks to 51 miles and event frequency ranged from annual to monthly. Reporting number of participants for events was sporadic. Few events conducted formal evaluations.

Conclusion:

The number of US cities hosting open streets is increasing. The sociodemographics of the host cities suggest a potential to increase physical activity in populations at risk for developing chronic diseases through these initiatives. However, further evaluation is required. Identifying successful promotion and evaluation tactics would boost the health promotion potential of these initiatives.

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Cora Burnett and Wim Hollander

The United Kingdom-South Africa Sports Initiative was launched in 1994 to contribute to a sustainable and equitable sports development system in South Africa. The initiative was implemented in two phases. Phase I entailed planning and developing a national sports administration curriculum. In Phase II, planning was finalized and resources were provided for the development of a sports delivery system, and the program was monitored to identify (a) problems, constraints, and challenges; (b) solutions; and (c) an implementation plan. Coordinators (n = 5), lead facilitators (n = 2), facilitators (n = 10), and sports leaders (n = 9) were interviewed, and statistics were compiled on their race and gender. The conclusion of Phase II entailed monitoring different aspects of the sports leaders' course. The main trends identified through that process include the context, aims and objectives, style of presentation, and content of courses at different levels. Perceptions about ownership, management, and the possible impact of the initiative are discussed.

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Lisa Kihl, Kathy Babiak and Scott Tainsky

As corporate community initiatives (CCI) in sport are becoming an important dimension of corporate social responsibility, a key issue is evaluating the quality of the processes by which they are delivered and how they are managed. The purpose of this study was to explore the implementation process of a professional sport team’s CCI using program evaluation theory (Chen, 2005). Interviews were conducted with 42 key stakeholders (team executives, partnership implementers, participants, parents, coaches) from one Major League Baseball team’s CCI to understand critical processes involved in CCI implementation and execution. The findings showed concerns in the quality of program implementation with the: 1) the partnership agreement, 2) the ecological context, 3) protocol and implementation, and 4) target population. We propose an iterative model of program evaluation for use in the sport context. We conclude the paper with recommendations for further research in this area and implications for practitioners.

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John A. Batsis, Cassandra M. Germain, Elizabeth Vásquez, Alicia J. Zbehlik and Stephen J. Bartels

Objectives:

Physical activity reduces mobility impairments in elders. We examined the association of physical activity on risk of subjective and objective physical function in adults with and at risk for osteoarthritis (OA).

Methods:

Adults aged ≥ 60 years from the longitudinal Osteoarthritis Initiative, a prospective observational study of knee OA, were classified by sex-specific quartiles of Physical Activity Score for the Elderly scores. Using linear mixed models, we assessed 6-year data on self-reported health, gait speed, Late-Life Function and Disability Index (LLFDI) and chair stand.

Results:

Of 2252 subjects, mean age ranged from 66 to 70 years. Within each quartile, physical component (PCS) of the Short Form-12 and gait speed decreased from baseline to follow-up in both sexes (all P < .001), yet the overall changes across PASE quartiles between these 2 time points were no different (P = .40 and .69, males and females, respectively). Decline in PCS occurred in the younger age group, but rates of change between quartiles over time were no different in any outcomes in either sex. LLFDI scores declined in the 70+ age group. Adjusting for knee extensor strength reduced the strength of association.

Conclusions:

Higher physical activity is associated with maintained physical function and is mediated by muscle strength, highlighting the importance of encouraging physical activity in older adults with and at risk for OA.

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Kiyoji Tanaka and Morihiko Okada

An overview of the mission, research goals, structure, and organization of a major Japanese university research program is presented. The research program is part of a larger initiative known as the Tsukuba Advanced Research Alliance (TARA), which is based at the University of Tsukuba in Ibaraki Prefecture, about 60 km northeast of Tokyo. The TARA Research Foundation was established at the University of Tsukuba in May 1994.

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Jacqueline Kerr, Greg Norman, Rachel Millstein, Marc A. Adams, Cindy Morgan, Robert D. Langer and Matthew Allison

Background:

Few studies of older adults have compared environmental correlates of walking and physical activity in women who may be more influenced by the environment. Environmental measures at different spatial levels have seldom been compared. Findings from previous studies are generally inconsistent.

Methods:

This study investigated the relationship between the built environment and physical activity in older women from the Women’s Health Initiative cohort in San Diego County (N = 5401). Built environment measures were created for 3 buffers around participants’ residential address. Linear regression analyses investigated the relationship between the built environment features and self-reported physical activity and walking.

Results:

Total walking was significantly positively associated with the walkability index (β = .050: half-mile buffer), recreation facility density (β = .036: 1-mile buffer), and distance to the coast (β = –.064; P-values < .05). Total physical activity was significantly negatively associated with distance to the coast and positively with recreation facility density (β = .036: 1-mile buffer; P < .05).

Conclusions:

Although effect sizes were small, we did find important relationships between walkability and walking in older adults, which supports recommendations for community design features to include age friendly elements. More intense physical activity may occur in recreational settings than neighborhood streets.

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William L. Haskell

This symposium addressed the ongoing development of new technologies for the objective measurement of physical activity and diet and efforts to provide best practice guidelines for scientists developing, evaluating and using existing and new technologies for the objective measurement of physical activity. The research projects discussed and the workshop overview presented are components of the Genes, Environment, and Health Initiative (GEI) of the National Institutes of Health. The rationale, plans and progress of the GEI physical activity and diet initiative were presented. Detailed presentations described 2 projects focused on the use of mobile phone based systems designed to collect, process and store data; 1 uses multiple wireless accelerometers to detect body movement and the other uses a camera built into a mobile phone and advanced software to quantify dietary intake. Given the rapid development of new accelerometer-based physical activity measurement devices and analytical approaches, it is important that best practices be used by scientists and practitioners using theses devices. An overview of a “best practices” workshop held in July 2009 was presented. The presentations and discussions during this symposium made evident the progress, potential and challenges of implementing advanced technologies to enhance the measurement of physical activity and diet.