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Jay Jonas

Column-editor : James M. Mensch

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Kevin Guskiewicz

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Kenneth L. Knight, Jody B. Brucker, Paul D. Stoneman and Mack D. Rubley

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Janie L. Kelly and Alison R. Valier

reported in English. 6. Limited to studies of level 3 evidence or better. 7. Limited to the last 10 years (2006–2015). Exclusion 1. Studies that did not investigate injury prevention, such as injury management. 2. Studies that investigated non-LLOI, such as back injuries or upper limb injuries. 3. Studies

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Bradford Strand, Shannon David, Katie J. Lyman and Jay M. Albrecht

The purpose of this original research was to survey high school coaches in four states in the Midwest region of the United States regarding their knowledge of first aid, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), and use of an Automated External Defibrillator (AED) as well as confidence in managing/treating emergency situations. Responses to general knowledge inquiries revealed that coaches were able to accurately answer questions related to return to play, level of consciousness, external bleeding, and cardiac arrest. However, coaches were unable to correctly answer questions specific to rest, ice, compression, and elevation (RICE) and also misidentified information related to pediatric AED use. Because sudden cardiac death is the leading cause of death and has been linked to lack of bystander intervention, the results of this project should be considered by coaches and administrators to implement certification and continuing education for high school coaches. Finally, coaches who were certified in first aid, CPR, and AED were more confident in treating an individual who required care compared with coaches not certified. Therefore, individuals who coach at all levels of sport and recreational activities should consider formal training and certification.

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Amy Barrette and Katherine Harman

comfortable reaching out to their rehabilitation specialists when they needed guidance. Therefore, like Robbins and Rosenfeld’s findings, 41 our study suggests that a good relationship between athletes and their coaches/rehabilitation specialists would have a positive impact on injury management. Conclusion

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Darren P. Morton and Robin Callister


To determine whether changes in lung function are associated with exercise-related transient abdominal pain (ETAP).


Twenty-eight subjects susceptible to ETAP performed a flow-volume loop before (pre) and after (post) treadmill exercise. Fourteen of the subjects developed symptoms of ETAP during the exercise and completed the flow-volume loop while the pain was present. The remaining 14 subjects reported no symptoms of ETAP.


Forced inspiratory vital capacity was essentially unchanged from pre to post in both groups (ETAP group −0.8% ± 5.1%, comparison group −0.9% ± 6.5%). Peak inspiratory-flow rate increased in both the ETAP group (12.4% ± 16.2%) and the comparison group (17.9% ± 16.6%), but the difference between groups (−4.6%, standardized effect size [EF] = −0.17) was trivial. Forced expiratory vital capacity decreased by approximately 4% in both groups (ETAP group −3.9% ± 3.3%, comparison group −4.0% ± 5.1%). Small differences in the mean change from pre to post between groups were recorded for peak expiratory-flow rate (−7.4%, EF = −0.28) and the forced expiratory volume in the first second of the test (−4.4%, EF = −0.44).


ETAP does not appear to be associated with reduced inspiratory performance, suggesting that the diaphragm is not implicated directly in the etiology of ETAP. Expiratory power might be slightly reduced during an episode of ETAP, but the magnitude of this effect is unlikely to compromise exercise performance.

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Jeremy R. Hawkins and Shawn W. Hawkins

Cryotherapy is commonly used by athletic trainers, although evidence is inconsistent to support its usage. Data are also lacking as to how athletic trainers treat common injuries with cryotherapy. The purpose of this study was to ascertain how collegiate athletic trainers approach the use of cryotherapy and whether that usage reflects what little we know about the modalities. Survey results indicated great variability in respondents’ approaches to the treatment of an acute and subacute ankle sprain. Additional data are needed to create clear treatment guidelines with respect to cryotherapy. Certain aspects of the application of cryotherapy should be reviewed and use adjusted accordingly.

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Jeremy R. Hawkins and Shawn W. Hawkins

Thermotherapy is commonly used by athletic trainers. Data are lacking as to how athletic trainers treat common injuries with thermotherapy. The purpose of this study was to ascertain how collegiate athletic trainers approach the use of thermotherapy and whether that usage reflects what current knowledge we have of thermotherapy. Survey results indicated respondents took three different approaches to the treatment of three different types of injuries. The majority of their approaches were applied according to current knowledge. Treatment guidelines could be strengthened with additional clinical outcomes data. Certain aspects of the application of the different thermotherapies should be reviewed and use adjusted accordingly.

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Janice K. Loudon and Marcie Swift

Clinical Question:

Is there evidence to suggest that runners with a history of ITBS demonstrate altered lower extremity kinematics compared with runners without a history of ITBS?

Clinical Bottom Line:

There is moderate evidence suggesting that hip kinematics differ between runners with a history of ITBS compared with healthy runners. Results are contradictory related to the plane of movement and direction of the kinematic change. In addition, assessing hip kinematics following an exhaustive run may be beneficial to detect change.