Column-editor : James M. Mensch
Kenneth L. Knight, Jody B. Brucker, Paul D. Stoneman and Mack D. Rubley
Janie L. Kelly and Alison R. Valier
reported in English. 6. Limited to studies of level 3 evidence or better. 7. Limited to the last 10 years (2006–2015). Exclusion 1. Studies that did not investigate injury prevention, such as injury management. 2. Studies that investigated non-LLOI, such as back injuries or upper limb injuries. 3. Studies
Amy Barrette and Katherine Harman
comfortable reaching out to their rehabilitation specialists when they needed guidance. Therefore, like Robbins and Rosenfeld’s findings, 41 our study suggests that a good relationship between athletes and their coaches/rehabilitation specialists would have a positive impact on injury management. Conclusion
Bradford Strand, Shannon David, Katie J. Lyman and Jay M. Albrecht
The purpose of this original research was to survey high school coaches in four states in the Midwest region of the United States regarding their knowledge of first aid, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), and use of an Automated External Defibrillator (AED) as well as confidence in managing/treating emergency situations. Responses to general knowledge inquiries revealed that coaches were able to accurately answer questions related to return to play, level of consciousness, external bleeding, and cardiac arrest. However, coaches were unable to correctly answer questions specific to rest, ice, compression, and elevation (RICE) and also misidentified information related to pediatric AED use. Because sudden cardiac death is the leading cause of death and has been linked to lack of bystander intervention, the results of this project should be considered by coaches and administrators to implement certification and continuing education for high school coaches. Finally, coaches who were certified in first aid, CPR, and AED were more confident in treating an individual who required care compared with coaches not certified. Therefore, individuals who coach at all levels of sport and recreational activities should consider formal training and certification.
Darren P. Morton and Robin Callister
To determine whether changes in lung function are associated with exercise-related transient abdominal pain (ETAP).
Twenty-eight subjects susceptible to ETAP performed a flow-volume loop before (pre) and after (post) treadmill exercise. Fourteen of the subjects developed symptoms of ETAP during the exercise and completed the flow-volume loop while the pain was present. The remaining 14 subjects reported no symptoms of ETAP.
Forced inspiratory vital capacity was essentially unchanged from pre to post in both groups (ETAP group −0.8% ± 5.1%, comparison group −0.9% ± 6.5%). Peak inspiratory-flow rate increased in both the ETAP group (12.4% ± 16.2%) and the comparison group (17.9% ± 16.6%), but the difference between groups (−4.6%, standardized effect size [EF] = −0.17) was trivial. Forced expiratory vital capacity decreased by approximately 4% in both groups (ETAP group −3.9% ± 3.3%, comparison group −4.0% ± 5.1%). Small differences in the mean change from pre to post between groups were recorded for peak expiratory-flow rate (−7.4%, EF = −0.28) and the forced expiratory volume in the first second of the test (−4.4%, EF = −0.44).
ETAP does not appear to be associated with reduced inspiratory performance, suggesting that the diaphragm is not implicated directly in the etiology of ETAP. Expiratory power might be slightly reduced during an episode of ETAP, but the magnitude of this effect is unlikely to compromise exercise performance.
Harold King, Stephen Campbell, Makenzie Herzog, David Popoli, Andrew Reisner and John Polikandriotis
More than 1 million US high school students play football. Our objective was to compare the high school football injury profiles by school enrollment size during the 2013–2014 season.
Injury data were prospectively gathered on 1806 student athletes while participating in football practice or games by certified athletic trainers as standard of care for 20 high schools in the Atlanta Metropolitan area divided into small (<1600 students enrolled) or large (≥1600 students enrolled) over the 2013–2014 football season.
Smaller schools had a higher overall injury rate (79.9 injuries per 10,000 athletic exposures vs. 46.4 injuries per 10,000 athletic exposures; P < .001). In addition, smaller schools have a higher frequency of shoulder and elbow injuries (14.3% vs. 10.3%; P = .009 and 3.5% vs. 1.5%; P = .006, respectively) while larger schools have more hip/upper leg injuries (13.3% vs. 9.9%; P = .021). Lastly, smaller schools had a higher concussion distribution for offensive lineman (30.6% vs. 13.4%; P = .006) and a lower rate for defensive backs/safeties (9.2% vs. 25.4%; P = .008).
This study is the first to compare and show unique injury profiles for different high school sizes. An understanding of school specific injury patterns can help drive targeted preventative measures.
Jeremy R. Hawkins and Shawn W. Hawkins
Thermotherapy is commonly used by athletic trainers. Data are lacking as to how athletic trainers treat common injuries with thermotherapy. The purpose of this study was to ascertain how collegiate athletic trainers approach the use of thermotherapy and whether that usage reflects what current knowledge we have of thermotherapy. Survey results indicated respondents took three different approaches to the treatment of three different types of injuries. The majority of their approaches were applied according to current knowledge. Treatment guidelines could be strengthened with additional clinical outcomes data. Certain aspects of the application of the different thermotherapies should be reviewed and use adjusted accordingly.
Smokey Fermin, Lindsay Larkins, Sarah Beene and David Wetzel
Clinical Scenario: Pain and range of motion (ROM) deficits are 2 issues that are commonly treated by clinicians. In certain instances, clinicians are tasked with treating patients who report with both pain and limited mobility. Currently, clinicians utilize a variety of different methods to combat pain and ROM limitations, but in singularity. However, contralateral exercises (CEs) may be a viable option that can have an effect on pain, ROM, or simultaneous effect on both. Clinical Question: For patients with pain and/or ROM deficits, will CE decrease pain and increase ROM? Summary of Findings: CE can have a significant effect on ipsilateral muscle activation, strength, as well as available motion on the contralateral limb. However, there is limited research on CE that explores effects on pain. Clinical Bottom Line: According to current evidence, CE can be a feasible option for clinicians trying to increase a patient’s ROM. Furthermore, there can be enhanced effects on stability, muscle strength, and muscle activation due to CE. Strength of Recommendation: Studies that have been included are a level of 4 or higher based on Center for Evidence Based Medicine. However, future studies both of higher levels and variability should be conducted.