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Jay Jonas

Column-editor : James M. Mensch

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Kenneth L. Knight, Jody B. Brucker, Paul D. Stoneman and Mack D. Rubley

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Kevin Guskiewicz

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Janie L. Kelly and Alison R. Valier

reported in English. 6. Limited to studies of level 3 evidence or better. 7. Limited to the last 10 years (2006–2015). Exclusion 1. Studies that did not investigate injury prevention, such as injury management. 2. Studies that investigated non-LLOI, such as back injuries or upper limb injuries. 3. Studies

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Bradford Strand, Shannon David, Katie J. Lyman and Jay M. Albrecht

The purpose of this original research was to survey high school coaches in four states in the Midwest region of the United States regarding their knowledge of first aid, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), and use of an Automated External Defibrillator (AED) as well as confidence in managing/treating emergency situations. Responses to general knowledge inquiries revealed that coaches were able to accurately answer questions related to return to play, level of consciousness, external bleeding, and cardiac arrest. However, coaches were unable to correctly answer questions specific to rest, ice, compression, and elevation (RICE) and also misidentified information related to pediatric AED use. Because sudden cardiac death is the leading cause of death and has been linked to lack of bystander intervention, the results of this project should be considered by coaches and administrators to implement certification and continuing education for high school coaches. Finally, coaches who were certified in first aid, CPR, and AED were more confident in treating an individual who required care compared with coaches not certified. Therefore, individuals who coach at all levels of sport and recreational activities should consider formal training and certification.

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Amy Barrette and Katherine Harman

comfortable reaching out to their rehabilitation specialists when they needed guidance. Therefore, like Robbins and Rosenfeld’s findings, 41 our study suggests that a good relationship between athletes and their coaches/rehabilitation specialists would have a positive impact on injury management. Conclusion

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Darren P. Morton and Robin Callister

Purpose:

To determine whether changes in lung function are associated with exercise-related transient abdominal pain (ETAP).

Methods:

Twenty-eight subjects susceptible to ETAP performed a flow-volume loop before (pre) and after (post) treadmill exercise. Fourteen of the subjects developed symptoms of ETAP during the exercise and completed the flow-volume loop while the pain was present. The remaining 14 subjects reported no symptoms of ETAP.

Results:

Forced inspiratory vital capacity was essentially unchanged from pre to post in both groups (ETAP group −0.8% ± 5.1%, comparison group −0.9% ± 6.5%). Peak inspiratory-flow rate increased in both the ETAP group (12.4% ± 16.2%) and the comparison group (17.9% ± 16.6%), but the difference between groups (−4.6%, standardized effect size [EF] = −0.17) was trivial. Forced expiratory vital capacity decreased by approximately 4% in both groups (ETAP group −3.9% ± 3.3%, comparison group −4.0% ± 5.1%). Small differences in the mean change from pre to post between groups were recorded for peak expiratory-flow rate (−7.4%, EF = −0.28) and the forced expiratory volume in the first second of the test (−4.4%, EF = −0.44).

Conclusions:

ETAP does not appear to be associated with reduced inspiratory performance, suggesting that the diaphragm is not implicated directly in the etiology of ETAP. Expiratory power might be slightly reduced during an episode of ETAP, but the magnitude of this effect is unlikely to compromise exercise performance.

Open access

Daniel Martínez-Silván, Jaime Díaz-Ocejo and Andrew Murray

Purpose:

To analyze the influence of training exposure and the utility of self-report questionnaires on predicting overuse injuries in adolescent endurance athletes.

Methods:

Five adolescent male endurance athletes (15.7 ± 1.4 y) from a full-time sports academy answered 2 questionnaires (Recovery Cue; RC-q and Oslo Sports Trauma Research questionnaire; OSTRC-q) on a weekly basis for 1 season (37 wk) to detect signs of overtraining and underrecovery (RC-q) and early symptoms of lower-limb injuries (OSTRC-q). All overuse injuries were retrospectively analyzed to detect which variations in the questionnaires in the weeks preceding injury were best associated. Overuse incidence rates were calculated based on training exposure.

Results:

Lower-limb overuse injuries accounted for 73% of total injuries. The incidence rate for overuse training-related injuries was 10 injuries/1000 h. Strong correlations were observed between individual running exposure and overuse injury incidence (r 2 = .66), number of overuse injuries (r 2 = .69), and days lost (r 2 = .66). A change of 20% or more in the RC-q score in the preceding week was associated with 67% of the lower-limb overuse injuries. Musculoskeletal symptoms were only detected in advance by the OSTRC-q in 27% of the episodes.

Conclusion:

Training exposure (especially running exposure) was shown to be related to overuse injuries, suggesting that monitoring training load is a key factor for injury prevention. Worsening scores in the RC-q (but not the OSTRC) may be an indicator of overuse injury in adolescent endurance runners when used longitudinally.

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Pablo A. Domene, Michelle Stanley and Glykeria Skamagki

Background: The investigation sought to (1) establish the extent of injuries, (2) determine the odds of sustaining an injury, and (3) calculate the injury incidence rate in nonprofessional salsa dance. Methods: Salsa dancers completed an anonymous web-based survey containing 11 demographic background and 10 (1 y retrospective) injury history questions. Results: The response rate was 77%. The final sample of respondents included 303 women and 147 men, of which 22% and 14%, respectively, sustained ≥1 injury during salsa dance in the past year. The odds of injury was 2.00 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.14–3.50) times greater (P < .05) for women than for men. Age, body mass index, and salsa dance experience were also found to be significant (all Ps < .05) predictors of injury. The injury incidence rate for women and men was 1.1 (95% CI, 0.9–1.4) and 0.5 (95% CI, 0.3–0.7) injuries per 1000 hours of exposure, respectively. Conclusions: This is the first study to have described salsa dancers in terms of their injury history profile. Results indicate that the likelihood of sustaining an injury during this physical activity is similar to that of ballroom, but lower than that of Spanish, aerobic, and Zumba®, dance.

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Mark Booth, Rhonda Orr and Stephen Cobley

Purpose: To conduct a systematic review into the effect of training load (TL) on both performance measures and injury characteristics in rugby league players. Methods: Based on PRISMA guidelines, a systematic search of electronic databases was performed from the earliest record to December 2016. Five electronic databases (MEDLINE, SPORTDiscus, CINAHL, Web of Science, and AusSportMed) were searched using keywords within the subcategories of population (rugby league players), intervention (training quantification), and outcomes (performance or injury). Original peer-reviewed published manuscripts were considered if they had a clear quantification of TL (eg, session rating of perceived exertion), clear measures of performance (tests of physiological parameters relative to rugby league players [eg, agility]), and/or injury characteristics (eg, injury incidence). Results: Twelve studies met the inclusion criteria. The highest TL was observed in preseason training phases. Higher TL elicited greater improvements in maximal aerobic power, vertical jump (in cm), and agility scores (in s). Higher TL was associated with higher incidence of muscular strains and joint sprains, lower-limb injuries, and overexertion and overuse injuries. Conclusions: Findings suggest a dose–response relationship between TL, physical performance, and injury characteristics. However, due to study and methodological limitations, the precise nature of this relationship is, as yet, inconclusive. Therefore, the development of uniform TL definition and quantification and further research is warranted.