control that may be associated with injury risk. Screening assessments that involve repeated jumping tasks also require athletes to respond to movement perturbations and forces. 12 The tuck jump assessment (TJA) is a practical field-based test that uses this approach and has been developed to identify
Rhodri S. Lloyd, Jon L. Oliver, Gregory D. Myer, Mark B. De Ste Croix, Josh Wass and Paul J. Read
Scott L. Bruce, Jared R. Rush, Megan M. Torres and Kyle J. Lipscomb
There is an absence of literature pertaining to the reliability of core muscular endurance tests. The purpose of this study was to assess the test-retest and interrater reliability of four core muscular endurance tests. Participants were physically active, college students. Data were gathered during three trials for each core test. Participants were timed by two test administrators (raters) until the participant could no longer hold the test position. Test-retest reliability values ranged from 0.57–0.85 for all three trials, and from 0.80–0.89 for the latter two trials. Interrater reliability values ranged from 0.99–1.00 for all three trials of all four tests. Although the participants were not athletes, we were able to demonstrate good test-retest and interrater reliability for the core muscular endurance tests assessed.
Brad W. Willis, Katie Hocker, Swithin Razu, Aaron D. Gray, Marjorie Skubic, Seth L. Sherman, Samantha Kurkowski and Trent M. Guess
Context: Knee abduction angle (KAA), as measured by 3-dimensional marker-based motion capture systems during jump-landing tasks, has been correlated with an elevated risk of anterior cruciate ligament injury in females. Due to the high cost and inefficiency of KAA measurement with marker-based motion capture, surrogate 2-dimensional frontal plane measures have gained attention for injury risk screening. The knee-to-ankle separation ratio (KASR) and medial knee position (MKP) have been suggested as potential frontal plane surrogate measures to the KAA, but investigations into their relationship to the KAA during a bilateral drop vertical jump task are limited. Objective: To investigate the relationship between KASR and MKP to the KAA during initial contact of the bilateral drop vertical jump. Design: Descriptive. Setting: Biomechanics laboratory. Participants: A total of 18 healthy female participants (mean age: 24.1 [3.88] y, mass: 65.18 [10.34] kg, and height: 1.63 [0.06] m). Intervention: Participants completed 5 successful drop vertical jump trials measured by a Vicon marker-based motion capture system and 2 AMTI force plates. Main Outcome Measure: For each jump, KAA of the tibia relative to the femur was measured at initial contact along with the KASR and MKP calculated from planar joint center data. The coefficient of determination (r2) was used to examine the relationship between the KASR and MKP to KAA. Results: A strong linear relationship was observed between MKP and KAA (r2 = .71), as well as between KASR and KAA (r 2 = .72). Conclusions: Two-dimensional frontal plane measures show strong relationships to the KAA during the bilateral drop vertical jump.
Shelby A. Peel, Lauren E. Schroeder, Zachary A. Sievert and Joshua T. Weinhandl
appear to be independent of one another. Collectively, these results suggest that it may be most effective to use unanticipated cutting tasks during predictive ACL injury risk screening methods. It is important to note that critical values for ASF and KAM to categorize individuals as high risk for ACL
Umut Ziya Kocak and Bayram Unver
have shown that considering fatigue while employing injury risk screening tests might lead to more accurate results. Therefore, screening tests such as FMS should be employed following a match, where players present fatigue and asymmetry can be assessed. However, it should be kept in the mind that the
Jeremiah Tate, Hanna True, Barry Dale and Carrie Baker
The high rate of ACL injury has led to the need for large-scale injury risk screening to aid in prevention. Cost and time alternatives to three-dimensional assessments of knee injury risk factors are necessary for largescale, clinical use. The purpose of this study was to determine the expert versus novice interrater reliability and test-retest reliability of the frontal plane projection angle (FPPA) during the single-leg squat (SLS) test. Excellent interrater reliability was demonstrated for session 1 and session 2. Excellent intrarater (i.e., test-retest) reliability was demonstrated for both the novice and expert. The minimal training requirements and excellent reliability of the FPPA during the SLS test make it a key screening tool for large-scale assessment of injury risk.
Daniel D. Cohen, Bingnan Zhao, Brian Okwera, Martyn J. Matthews and Anne Delextrat
To evaluate the effect of simulated soccer on the hamstrings eccentric torque-angle profile and angle of peak torque (APTeccH), and on the hamstrings:quadriceps torque ratio at specific joint angles (ASHecc:Qcon).
The authors assessed dominant-limb isokinetic concentric and eccentric knee flexion and concentric knee extension at 120°/s in 9 semiprofessional male soccer players immediately before and after they completed the Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test (LIST).
The LIST resulted in significant decreases in eccentric hamstrings torque at 60°, 50°, and 10° and a significant (21.8%) decrease in ASHecc:Qcon at 10° (P < .05). APTeccH increased from 7.1° ± 1.0° to 18.8° ± 4.2° (P < .05). Eccentric hamstrings peak torque significantly declined from 185.1 ± 70.4 N·m pre-LIST to 150.9 ± 58.5 N·m post-LIST (P = .002), but there were no significant changes in hamstrings or quadriceps concentric peak torque (P = .312, .169, respectively).
Simulated soccer results in a selective loss of eccentric hamstrings torque and hamstrings-to-quadriceps muscle balance at an extended joint position and a shift in the eccentric hamstrings APT to a shorter length, changes that could increase vulnerability to hamstrings injury. These findings suggest that injury-risk screening could be improved by evaluating the eccentric hamstrings torque-angle profile and hamstrings strength-endurance and that the development of hamstrings fatigue resistance and long-length eccentric strength may reduce injury incidence.
Jeffrey B. Taylor, Alexis A. Wright, James M. Smoliga, J. Tyler DePew and Eric J. Hegedus
Physical-performance tests (PPTs) are commonly used in rehabilitation and injury-prevention settings, yet normative values of upper-extremity PPTs have not been established in high-level athletes.
To establish normative data values for the Closed Kinetic Chain Upper-Extremity Stability Test (CKCUEST) and Upper-Quarter Y-Balance Test (UQYBT) in college athletes and compare results between sports and to analyze the relationship between the 2 tests.
257 (118 male, 139 female) Division I athletes participating in basketball, soccer, baseball, lacrosse, volleyball, track and field, and cross-country.
CKCUEST and UQYBT scores were recorded as part of a comprehensive injury-risk screening battery.
Main Outcome Measure:
Pearson correlations assessed the relationship between all measures of the CKCUEST and UQYBT. A factorial ANOVA and a repeated-measures ANOVA (arm dominance) were used to assess interactions between sex, year in school, and sport for CKCUEST and UQYBT scores.
Normative values for the CKCUEST and UQYBT were established for 9 men’s and women’s college sports. No significant relationships were found between PPT scores. Men scored significantly higher than women for the CKCUEST (P = .002) and UQYBT (P = .010). Baseball players scored significantly higher than athletes from all other sports for the UQYBT (P < .001) but showed nonsignificant trends of lower scores for the CKCUEST than lower-extremity-dominant athletes such as runners (P = .063) and lacrosse players (P = .058).
Results suggest that average CKCUEST and UQYBT scores in Division I athletes are distinct from those previously reported in recreationally active populations and that performance differences exist between sexes and sports. In addition, the CKCUEST and UQYBT appear to measure different constructs of performance and may complement each other as part of a screening battery.
Moataz Eltoukhy, Christopher Kuenze, Jeonghoon Oh, Eryn Apanovitch, Lauren Butler and Joseph F. Signorile
validly assess lower-extremity kinematics during a side-cutting task in a young, athletic population, which may have future applications in the areas of injury risk screening and rehabilitation monitoring. This paper is the first to compare the ability of the Kinect and traditional 3DMA system to measure
Bradley S. Beardt, Myranda R. McCollum, Taylour J. Hinshaw, Jacob S. Layer, Margaret A. Wilson, Qin Zhu and Boyi Dai
ID: 27637264 doi:10.1177/0363546516665810 10.1177/0363546516665810 27637264 21. Fox AS , Bonacci J , McLean SG , Saunders N . Efficacy of ACL injury risk screening methods in identifying high-risk landing patterns during a sport-specific task . Scand J Med Sci Sports . 2017 ; 27 : 525