which impairment groups they provide sporting opportunities for in their classification rules. 6 Injury and injury prevention data are well researched and abundant among able-bodied athletes, leading to high-quality evidence and protocols aimed at reducing injury prevalence and impact on participation
Shana E. Harrington, Sean McQueeney, and Marcus Fearing
Andressa Silva, Fernanda V. Narciso, Igor Soalheiro, Fernanda Viegas, Luísa S.N. Freitas, Adriano Lima, Bruno A. Leite, Haroldo C. Aleixo, Rob Duffield, and Marco T. de Mello
performance and affect muscle recovery, 6 , 8 changes occurring in these sleep variables may favor the appearance of musculoskeletal injuries. 8 The release of growth hormone, testosterone, and cortisol occur during sleep as part of the processes regulating protein synthesis and degradation, which, in turn
Misia Gervis, Helen Pickford, and Thomas Hau
Health Act”, 2017 ) and defender Steven Caulker has spoken openly about his struggles with depression and drinking ( Fifield, 2017 ). A common theme across these three cases is that they all suffered from long-term injury in their careers. The Professional Footballers’ Association (PFA) is the
Damien Clement and Monna Arvinen-Barrow
The existing literature suggests that the most effective sport injury rehabilitation occurs when a range of individuals work closely together with the injured athlete to aid their return to preinjury levels of physical and psychosocial health, fitness, well-being, and performance. 1 As such, sport
Zenzi Huysmans and Damien Clement
risk for athletic injury ( Williams & Andersen, 1998 ). As outlined by Williams and Andersen’s ( 1998 ) stress-injury model, history of stressors, coping resources, and personality factors will moderate the stress response to a potentially stressful situation and subsequently alter susceptibility to
Although it is commonly believed that focusing too much attention on the injured body area impairs recovery in sports, this has not been directly assessed. The present study investigated attentional focus following sports injury. Experienced baseball position players recovering from knee surgery (Expt 1) and baseball pitchers recovering from elbow surgery (Expt 2) performed simulated batting and pitching respectively. They also performed three different secondary tasks: leg angle judgments, arm angle judgments, and judgments about the ball leaving their bat/hand. Injured athletes were compared with expert and novice control groups. Performance on the secondary tasks indicated that the injured batters had an internal focus of attention localized on the area of the injury resulting in significantly poorer batting performance as compared with the expert controls. Injured pitchers had a diffuse, internal attentional focus similar to that of novices resulting in poorer pitching performance as compared with the expert controls.
Sarah J. Hanson, Penny McCullagh, and Phyllis Tonymon
In 1988, Andersen and Williams proposed a model to explain the stress-injury relationship. The present study tested portions of this framework by investigating frequency and severity of injury occurrence in track and field athletes from four NCAA Division I and II universities. Personality characteristics (locus of control and sport competition trait anxiety), history of stressors (life stress, daily hassles, and past injury), and moderating variables (coping resources and social support) were assessed before the season began. Discriminant analyses indicated that four variables (coping resources, negative life stress, social support, and competitive anxiety) differentiated the severity groups. For injury frequency, coping resources and positive life stress differentiated the groups.
Robert Weinberg, Daniel Vernau, and Thelma Horn
The purpose of the present investigation was to assess the influence of gender and athletic identity on recreational basketball players’ attitudes and behaviors with regard to playing through pain and injury. Participants included 130 male and female intramural basketball players who completed the Athletic Identity Measurement Scale (AIMS), the Risk Pain and Injury Questionnaire (RPIQ), and a scale to measure behavioral tendencies toward playing with injury. Results from MANOVA and hierarchical regression analyses revealed that gender was not a factor in regard to either injury-related attitudes or behavioral tendencies. In contrast, athletic identity was a significant factor. Specifically, athletes who were higher in athletic identity exhibited more positive attitudes toward playing with injury as well as higher behavioral tendencies to do so. Study results are discussed in terms of the sport culture and sport ethic surrounding injury.
Richard Lowry, Sarah M. Lee, Deborah A. Galuska, Janet E. Fulton, Lisa C. Barrios, and Laura Kann
Few studies have focused on the relationship between physical activity-related (PA) injury and overweight among youth.
We analyzed data from the 2001 and 2003 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys (n = 28,815). Logistic regression was used to examine the independent effects of BMI and frequency of participation in vigorous activity, moderate activity, strengthening exercises, physical education (PE) classes, and team sports on the likelihood of PA injury.
Approximately 14% of females and 19% of males reported seeing a doctor or nurse during the previous 30 d for an injury that happened while exercising or playing sports. PA injury was associated with participation in team sports, strengthening exercises, and (among females) vigorous physical activity. Controlling for type and frequency of physical activity, injury was not associated with being overweight (BMI ≥ 95th percentile).
Moderate physical activity and school PE classes may provide relatively low-risk alternatives for overweight youth who need to increase their physical activity.
Leilani Madrigal and Diane L. Gill
Using the Integrated Model of Response to Sport Injury as a theoretical framework, athletes’ psychological strengths and emotional responses were explored throughout the injury process using a case study approach. Four Division I athletes completed measures of mental toughness, hardiness, and optimism before their season (time 1), once they became injured (time 2), midway through rehabilitation (time 3), and when they were cleared to participate (time 4). Coping behavior, psychological response, and rehabilitation adherence were recorded at time 2–time 4, while recovering. In addition, interviews were conducted after time 4. Mental toughness, hardiness, and optimism varied over time and across cases, with broad individual differences in response to injury. Athletes experienced a loss of athletic identity combined with feelings of guilt and helplessness over the initial stages of injury, but positive experiences were also found. All cases also reported playing through injury. Understanding the psychological strengths and responses of athletes can help professionals work with injured athletes.