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Shari D. Bartz-Smith and Amy Campbell

An injury care clinic (ICC) as part of a comprehensive campus-wide healthcare system is a cost-effective way to optimize the flow of patient care utilizing a collaborative model of healthcare in a time of physician shortage. Services include: basic first aid, injury evaluation, acute injury care, basic rehabilitation, preventative techniques including taping and stretching, and professional referrals. The ICC provides care to previously underserved campus community members, focusing on: club sport and intramural athletes, recreation center users, and the general student body, in addition to faculty and staff, going beyond the varsity athlete. The ICC functions through the efforts of athletic trainers, physicians, fitness specialists, administrators, faculty, and students across disciplines. After 3 years, the clinic has serviced more than 2,500 unique patients exceeding 4,800 patient encounters, demonstrating outcomes that access to affordable healthcare options with a licensed healthcare provider are warranted and needed.

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Neil Curtis

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Gary L. Harrelson

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Peggy A. Houglum

When soft tissue is injured, it must follow a complex healing process. The sports medicine specialist delivering care to an injured athlete should have an appreciation and understanding of the phases and timing of the healing process so that appropriate, efficient, and effective rehabilitation program may be established. This paper presents an overview of the chemical and cellular activity involved in soft tissue healing, with emphasis on those aspects that can be affected by a rehabilitation program. Outside factors commonly used in sports injury care and how they may influence tissue healing are addressed. Guidelines are presented for establishing a sports rehabilitation program based on the physiological effects of the healing process. Various aspects of a rehabilitation program must be carefully coordinated with the timing of tissue healing and designed in a logical sequence to permit successful rehabilitation of the injured athlete in an optimal and efficient manner.

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Michael Sanders, Anton E. Bowden, Spencer Baker, Ryan Jensen, McKenzie Nichols, and Matthew K. Seeley

Context: Foot and ankle injuries are common and often require a nonweight-bearing period of immobilization for the involved leg. This nonweight-bearing period usually results in muscle atrophy for the involved leg. There is a dearth of objective data describing muscle activation for different ambulatory aids that are used during the aforementioned nonweight-bearing period. Objective: To compare activation amplitudes for 4 leg muscles during (1) able-bodied gait and (2) ambulation involving 3 different ambulatory aids that can be used during the acute phase of foot and ankle injury care. Design: Within-subject, repeated measures. Setting: University biomechanics laboratory. Participants: Sixteen able-bodied individuals (7 females and 9 males). Intervention: Each participant performed able-bodied gait and ambulation using 3 different ambulatory aids (traditional axillary crutches, knee scooter, and a novel lower-leg prosthesis). Main Outcome Measure: Muscle activation amplitude quantified via mean surface electromyography amplitude throughout the stance phase of ambulation. Results: Numerous statistical differences (P < .05) existed for muscle activation amplitude between the 4 observed muscles, 3 ambulatory aids, and able-bodied gait. For the involved leg, comparing the 3 ambulatory aids: (1) knee scooter ambulation resulted in the greatest vastus lateralis activation, (2) ambulation using the novel prosthesis and traditional crutches resulted in greater biceps femoris activation than knee scooter ambulation, and (3) ambulation using the novel prosthesis resulted in the greatest gastrocnemius activation (P < .05). Generally speaking, muscle activation amplitudes were most similar to able-bodied gait when subjects were ambulating using the knee scooter or novel prosthesis. Conclusions: Type of ambulatory aid influences muscle activation amplitude. Traditional axillary crutches appear to be less likely to mitigate muscle atrophy during the nonweighting, immobilization period that often follows foot or ankle injuries. Researchers and clinicians should consider these results when recommending ambulatory aids for foot or ankle injuries.

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David P. Hedlund, Carol A. Fletcher, Simon M. Pack, and Sean Dahlin

” Sport Environments • Rules, Laws and History of the Sport • History of the Sport • Human Development, Age-Related Information, and Disability and Adapted Sport (i.e., Inclusivity) • Physical Literacy (i.e., Agility, Balance, Coordination) • Injuries, Care and Recovery • Legal Responsibilities, Emergency

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Tyler A. Wood, Nicholas E. Grahovec, and Catrina M. Sanfilippo

provide resources to further educate athletic trainers on how they are qualified to provide healthcare to this population. Other lines of research should investigate interventions an athletic trainer can employ for injury care and prevention and follow-up on best practices initiated by athletic trainers

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Hiromichi Usuki, Nealy Grandgenett, Sofia Jawed-Wessel, Adam B. Rosen, and Melanie L. McGrath

savings (per $1 invested) to groups and employers who utilize ATs for on-site injury care and rehabilitation. 12 Thus, ATs can be a possible alternative medical providers for BJJ athletes. Limitations We do need to acknowledge some limitations of our past study. Our participants were BJJ athletes 19

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Nancy D. Groh and Greggory M. Hundt

, a self-efficacy tool developed and validated to explore student self-efficacy ratings in injury assessment, preventative injury care, and therapeutic modalities over a 1-year period specific to gender found significant increases in self-efficacy scores throughout the study period across component