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Adesola C. Odole, Olawale T. Agbomeji, Ogochukwu K.K. Onyeso, Joshua O. Ojo, and Nse A. Odunaiya

: “Physiotherapist lack basic facilities and some physiotherapist lack experience in sports injury management, also the cost of physiotherapy services is expensive.” “The cost of Physiotherapy is very expensive because of the gadgets they use generally.” “Physiotherapy services are not cheap; they are not readily

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Jay Jonas

Column-editor : James M. Mensch

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Kevin Guskiewicz

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Kenneth L. Knight, Jody B. Brucker, Paul D. Stoneman, and Mack D. Rubley

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Janie L. Kelly and Alison R. Valier

reported in English. 6. Limited to studies of level 3 evidence or better. 7. Limited to the last 10 years (2006–2015). Exclusion 1. Studies that did not investigate injury prevention, such as injury management. 2. Studies that investigated non-LLOI, such as back injuries or upper limb injuries. 3. Studies

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Amy Barrette and Katherine Harman

comfortable reaching out to their rehabilitation specialists when they needed guidance. Therefore, like Robbins and Rosenfeld’s findings, 41 our study suggests that a good relationship between athletes and their coaches/rehabilitation specialists would have a positive impact on injury management. Conclusion

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Bradford Strand, Shannon David, Katie J. Lyman, and Jay M. Albrecht

The purpose of this original research was to survey high school coaches in four states in the Midwest region of the United States regarding their knowledge of first aid, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), and use of an Automated External Defibrillator (AED) as well as confidence in managing/treating emergency situations. Responses to general knowledge inquiries revealed that coaches were able to accurately answer questions related to return to play, level of consciousness, external bleeding, and cardiac arrest. However, coaches were unable to correctly answer questions specific to rest, ice, compression, and elevation (RICE) and also misidentified information related to pediatric AED use. Because sudden cardiac death is the leading cause of death and has been linked to lack of bystander intervention, the results of this project should be considered by coaches and administrators to implement certification and continuing education for high school coaches. Finally, coaches who were certified in first aid, CPR, and AED were more confident in treating an individual who required care compared with coaches not certified. Therefore, individuals who coach at all levels of sport and recreational activities should consider formal training and certification.

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Darren P. Morton and Robin Callister

Purpose:

To determine whether changes in lung function are associated with exercise-related transient abdominal pain (ETAP).

Methods:

Twenty-eight subjects susceptible to ETAP performed a flow-volume loop before (pre) and after (post) treadmill exercise. Fourteen of the subjects developed symptoms of ETAP during the exercise and completed the flow-volume loop while the pain was present. The remaining 14 subjects reported no symptoms of ETAP.

Results:

Forced inspiratory vital capacity was essentially unchanged from pre to post in both groups (ETAP group −0.8% ± 5.1%, comparison group −0.9% ± 6.5%). Peak inspiratory-flow rate increased in both the ETAP group (12.4% ± 16.2%) and the comparison group (17.9% ± 16.6%), but the difference between groups (−4.6%, standardized effect size [EF] = −0.17) was trivial. Forced expiratory vital capacity decreased by approximately 4% in both groups (ETAP group −3.9% ± 3.3%, comparison group −4.0% ± 5.1%). Small differences in the mean change from pre to post between groups were recorded for peak expiratory-flow rate (−7.4%, EF = −0.28) and the forced expiratory volume in the first second of the test (−4.4%, EF = −0.44).

Conclusions:

ETAP does not appear to be associated with reduced inspiratory performance, suggesting that the diaphragm is not implicated directly in the etiology of ETAP. Expiratory power might be slightly reduced during an episode of ETAP, but the magnitude of this effect is unlikely to compromise exercise performance.

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Johanna M. Hoch, Cori W. Sinnott, Kendall P. Robinson, William O. Perkins, and Jonathan W. Hartman

Context: There is a lack of literature to support the diagnostic accuracy and cut-off scores of commonly used patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) and clinician-oriented outcomes such as postural-control assessments (PCAs) when treating post-ACL reconstruction (ACLR) patients. These scores could help tailor treatments, enhance patient-centered care and may identify individuals in need of additional rehabilitation. Objective: To determine if differences in 4-PROMs and 3-PCAs exist between post-ACLR and healthy participants, and to determine the diagnostic accuracy and cut-off scores of these outcomes. Design: Case control. Setting: Laboratory. Participants: A total of 20 post-ACLR and 40 healthy control participants. Main Outcome Measures: The participants completed 4-PROMs (the Disablement in the Physically Active Scale [DPA], The Fear-Avoidance Belief Questionnaire [FABQ], the Knee Osteoarthritis Outcomes Score [KOOS] subscales, and the Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia [TSK-11]) and 3-PCAs (the Balance Error Scoring System [BESS], the modified Star Excursion Balance Test [SEBT], and static balance on an instrumented force plate). Mann-Whitney U tests examined differences between groups. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were employed to determine sensitivity and specificity. The Area Under the Curve (AUC) was calculated to determine the diagnostic accuracy of each instrument. The Youdin Index was used to determine cut-off scores. Alpha was set a priori at P < 0.05. Results: There were significant differences between groups for all PROMs (P < 0.05). There were no differences in PCAs between groups. The cut-off scores should be interpreted with caution for some instruments, as the scores may not be clinically applicable. Conclusions: Post-ACLR participants have decreased self-reported function and health-related quality of life. The PROMs are capable of discriminating between groups. Clinicians should consider using the cut-off scores in clinical practice. Further use of the instruments to examine detriments after completion of standard rehabilitation may be warranted.

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Smokey Fermin, Lindsay Larkins, Sarah Beene, and David Wetzel

Clinical Scenario: Pain and range of motion (ROM) deficits are 2 issues that are commonly treated by clinicians. In certain instances, clinicians are tasked with treating patients who report with both pain and limited mobility. Currently, clinicians utilize a variety of different methods to combat pain and ROM limitations, but in singularity. However, contralateral exercises (CEs) may be a viable option that can have an effect on pain, ROM, or simultaneous effect on both. Clinical Question: For patients with pain and/or ROM deficits, will CE decrease pain and increase ROM? Summary of Findings: CE can have a significant effect on ipsilateral muscle activation, strength, as well as available motion on the contralateral limb. However, there is limited research on CE that explores effects on pain. Clinical Bottom Line: According to current evidence, CE can be a feasible option for clinicians trying to increase a patient’s ROM. Furthermore, there can be enhanced effects on stability, muscle strength, and muscle activation due to CE. Strength of Recommendation: Studies that have been included are a level of 4 or higher based on Center for Evidence Based Medicine. However, future studies both of higher levels and variability should be conducted.