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Kathryn L. Heinze and Di Lu

In recent years, institutional scholarship has shifted from a focus on homogeneity and isomorphism ( Deephouse, 1996 ; Slack & Hinings, 1994 ) to understanding heterogeneity in organizational responses to institutional change ( Greenwood, Raynard, Kodeih, Micelotta, & Lounsbury, 2011 ; Pache

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Jonathan Robertson, Ryan Storr, Andrew Bakos and Danny O’Brien

intersection of gender and sexuality, we positioned institutional change as a contextual and multidimensional phenomenon that may be disruptive in one dimension while maintained in others. Our overall premise was to understand how institutional entrepreneurs bring about social change in a sport that

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Calvin Nite and Marvin Washington

institutional work of important actors within the field and how the concerted actions of schools on the one hand and the NCAA on the other eventually led to institutional change. In this regard, the NCAA was slow to evolve its practices and chose (wrongly) to satiate the majority of its membership. It chose to

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Benjamin D. Brewer

The rediscovery in the past three years of the widespread and highly organized use of performance-enhancing drugs—known as “doping”—in professional cycling has thrown the sport into a period of turmoil. Through a critical historical analysis, the article argues that profound institutional changes introduced into professional cycling by the sport’s governing body both facilitated and reflected the increasing commercial penetration of the sport. These institutional transformations put new pressures on team managers and racers, leading to significant changes in team organizations and rider preparation, in part fostering a new social organization of doping practices.

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Marvin Washington and Marc J. Ventresca

The prominence of collegiate athletics in amateur athletics is a historically specific outcome. Research in institutional theory is extended by developing an institutional-conflict-based approach to studying institutional changes of U.S. collegiate athletics. Available secondary sources and extensive original data demonstrate how the NCAA came to dominate the governance structure of U.S. amateur basketball. Discourse about the NCAA came to represent the dominant discourse in amateur basketball, and colleges and universities eliminated the noncolleges and nonuniversities from their play schedules. The NCAA developed a set of institutional strategies aimed at increasing its power in U.S. basketball. An institutional-conflict-based approach is useful for analyzing changes in the institutional structure of sports and demonstrates how governance systems and institutional conflicts impact organizational actions. Sport policy makers and managers should consider the historical context and institutional environment of their sport when making decisions.

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Ann MacPhail and Therese Hartley

The purpose of this study is to explore the extent to which beginning and experienced teachers differed in their perceptions of shaping school forces and their being shaped by school forces. The findings allow the authors to examine the link between teacher socialization research and practice in a physical education teacher education (PETE) program and to consider the practical (and institutional) changes that may improve the quality of teacher education. Six beginning physical education teachers (BTs) (in their first year of teaching) and six experienced physical education teachers (ETs) (who had been teaching for six years) took part in interviews and completed prompt sheets throughout the duration of a school year. The paper discusses ways in which one PETE program has attempted to use, and plans for future use of, BTs’ and ETs’ accounts of socialization to inform how best to prepare PSTs for the reality of teaching in schools.

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Sarah Leberman and Farah Palmer

Mothers’ voices are often silent in leisure and sport literature. This research used domain theory (Layder, 1997, 2006) to highlight the varied social domains that influence the experiences of nine women as mothers and sport leaders in New Zealand. Semistructured interviews were conducted and analyzed for themes using Hyper-RESEARCH. The findings suggest that potential constraints regarding sport leadership included guilt, exhaustion and stress, social disapproval and organizational resistance to the presence of children in sport settings. These women negotiate these potential constraints and manage their multiple identities with passion for sport and leadership, strong support networks, and specific integrating/compartmentalizing strategies to create work-family-leisure balance. The participants accentuated the mutual benefits of motherhood and sport leadership for themselves and for those they influence, while focusing on changes they can bring about at the personal and interpersonal level. Organizational and institutional change was less forthcoming, but a critical mass of mothers in some sport settings was slowly creating a desire for change.

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Landy Di Lu and Kathryn L. Heinze

Institutional factors can play a key role in the adoption of new approaches among sport organizations ( Slack & Hinings, 1992 , 1994 ; Washington & Ventresca, 2004 ). Studies of institutional change in sport examine professionalization and formalization in amateur sport organizations ( Amis

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Sheri J. Brock, Jared A. Russell, Brenna Cosgrove and Jessica Richards

objectives, which can all too often make or break initiatives and programs. Consequently, it is important to note three specific institutional changes we have experienced that may not completely answer the perplexity of increased demand but may further explain our sustained efforts to advance the PAWP. First

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Kwame J.A. Agyemang, Brennan K. Berg and Rhema D. Fuller

, and observing. Meanwhile, deterring refers to the enactment of coercive barriers that halt any type of institutional change. Together, the previously mentioned three forms of maintenance work are noted for their high degree of directness because the actors are very much aware of the actions and its