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Matthew Juravich and Brian M. Mills

A focus of recent studies applying institutional theory has dealt with the examination of organizational fields rather than individual organizations or entire organizational populations as primary units of analyses. DiMaggio and Powell ( 1983 ) defined an organizational field as a group of

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Jonathan Robertson, Ryan Storr, Andrew Bakos and Danny O’Brien

exists around the women’s game” ( Hickey et al., 2016 , p. 3). Interestingly, this same point was also noted by Fink ( 2012 ), who drew attention to the role homophobia plays in marketing efforts around female athletes. In linking the present literature to institutional theory, we move our attention to

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Russell E. Ward Jr.

Despite suggestions that mission statements represent a strategic component of organizational communication, there has been little research of these documents in athletic departments at U.S. colleges and universities. The purpose of this research was to explore the relationship between mission statement content and athletic department accomplishments in National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I schools (N = 343). The content analysis of mission statements revealed that athletics missions do not differentiate accomplished from less accomplished athletic programs. Athletic departments with strong traditions of promoting the academic advancement of student-athletes, achieving gender equity, and complying with NCAA rules tend to reference these distinctions in the same way as departments with less favorable histories. Grounded in institutional theory, this article describes the external pressures toward sameness rather than differentiation in mission statement content. Implications for intercollegiate athletics and higher education are discussed.

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Jules Woolf, Brennan K. Berg, Brianna L. Newland and B. Christine Green

Mixed martial arts (MMA) is a rapidly growing combat sport with unique development procedures unlike most traditional sports. In this study the development processes at an exemplar MMA gym were examined. Institutional work theory was used to understand how and why the sport is being developed in this setting. The results provide a microlevel account of the processes and operation of the sport as it develops, and indicate that traditional sport development models may not adequately represent all sports. Subcultural values reflecting what it takes to be a fighter along with a fighter’s duty to the gym influence recruitment, retention, and transition strategies of athletes. Two forms of institutional work, refinement and barrier work, were identified as simultaneously aiding and hindering the development of the sport. Along with furthering institutional theory research, this study contributes to the discourse on alternative ways of sport development for MMA and emergent sports.

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Kathryn L. Heinze and Di Lu

? Further, we develop propositions about the factors that may lead to shifts in powerful sport governing bodies’ responses to institutional change. This study advances institutional theory and sport management in several ways. First, by identifying shifts in how a sport governing body reacts to

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Calvin Nite and Marvin Washington

 al., 2017 ). We observed the context through known theoretical lenses (e.g., institutional theory, institutional work) in efforts to extend understandings of how innovation impacts institutional arrangements within sport ( Timmermans & Tavory, 2012 ). Langley ( 1999 ) noted multiple approaches to analyze

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Landy Di Lu and Kathryn L. Heinze

, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of concussions, ( Maroon, Mathyssek, & Bost, 2014 ; McCrea et al., 2003 ; McCrea, Hammeke, Olsen, Leo, & Guskiewicz, 2004 ) and adds new knowledge on relevant sport policy and institutional developments. Theory and Hypotheses Institutional theory posits that

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Kwame J.A. Agyemang, Brennan K. Berg and Rhema D. Fuller

, 2008 ; Lawrence & Suddaby, 2006 ). Defined, institutional work is described as “the practices of individuals and collective actors aimed at creating, maintaining, and disrupting institutions” ( Lawrence, Suddaby, & Leca, 2011 , p. 52). Bringing agency back into institutional theory, this body of

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Mathew Dowling and Jimmy Smith

This investigation examined how Own the Podium (OTP) has contributed to the ongoing development of highperformance sport in Canada. In adopting an institutional work perspective, we contend that OTP’s continuance has not been the sole product of Canada’s success at the Olympic and Paralympic Games or lobbying efforts to secure additional funding. Rather, OTP’s permanence can also be explained as the by-product of the activities and actions of OTP itself and its supporting stakeholders to embed and institutionalize both the organization specifically and high-performance sport more generally in the Canadian sport landscape. In short, OTP’s continued existence can, in part, be explained by ongoing institutional work. To support our contentions, we draw on and analyze documentation that was either produced by, or significant to the development of, OTP. Our analysis identifies a number of OTP-related practices (e.g., tiering, hiring of high-performance advisors, and the creation and support of new high-performance sport programs) that have further institutionalized OTP and the norms, routines, and practices associated with high-performance sport. More broadly, our investigation draws attention to the importance of individual and collective actors in shaping institutional settings in sport.

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Dana L. Ellis, Milena M. Parent and Benoit Seguin

This article examines how Olympic ambush marketing stakeholder power and transfer of sponsorship, as well as ambush marketing knowledge, have influenced institutional processes leading to the institutionalization of antiambush legislation over the years. Using a qualitative case study design and network analysis, findings show the International Olympic Committee and Organizing Committees for the Olympic Games demonstrate the greatest stakeholder influence within the Olympic ambush marketing network. The power and influence resulting from the structure of Olympic ambush marketing networks was argued to impact the institutional processes of objectification and sedimentation. Various knowledge transfer tools, as well as challenges and issues faced in this area, seem to act as moderators for the relationship between network structures and the process of institutionalization.