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Pao-Yin Hsu and John M. Dunn

The purpose of this study was to compare reverse chaining and forward chaining instructional methods in teaching a motor task to moderately mentally retarded individuals. The motor task employed was a modified bowling skill using a four-step approach. Thirty moderately mentally retarded individuals were randomly assigned to either the reverse chaining or the forward chaining group. The 15 subjects in the reverse chaining group were taught the last subtask first and then each subsequent subtask was added one by one until the entire skill sequence was taught. For the 15 subjects in the forward chaining group, the first subtask was taught first, and then each following subtask was added one by one until the entire skill sequence was taught. Results showed that the subjects in the reverse chaining group required significantly fewer trails and physical assists to learn the given motor task than the subjects in the forward chaining group. No significant differences in retention scores were found between the two groups.

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Koon Teck Koh, Chunxiao Li, and Swarup Mukherjee

Purpose: Information and communication technologies can enable educators in the development of innovative and contextually relevant approaches for the provision of enhanced learning experiences. This study examined preservice physical education teachers’ perceptions of a flipped learning basketball course in a physical education teacher education program. Method: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight preservice physical education teachers (three females; M age = 23.5 years) who had completed the course. Interview data were coded using inductive and deductive thematic analysis. Results: Six main themes were identified reflecting benefits, challenges, and recommendations of flipped learning: (a) facilitate student-centered learning, (b) promote self-directed learning, (c) encourage real-world application, (d) insufficient avenues to assess understanding, (e) preclass preparation too time consuming, and (f) modification of materials and structure. Discussion/Conclusion: Flipped learning can potentially enhance preservice physical education teachers’ motivation for learning and increase active learning time in the sport-based courses in physical education teacher education. The identified challenges and recommendations are valuable for physical education teacher education educators to effectively prepare and execute flipped learning-based courses.

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Ben D. Kern, Kim C. Graber, Amelia Mays Woods, and Tom Templin

experts point to students as particularly influential socializing agents ( Day & Gu, 2010 ) due to the extended time teachers and students spend together. Research in physical education has demonstrated that student reaction to instructional methods and activities is so impactful that it can result in

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Pete Van Mullem and Kirk Mathias

result of an athlete performance assessment 17.49 27.06 35.64 11.22 4.62 3.63 0.33 0.00  Use a variety of instructional methods to create a positive learning environment to teaching sport skills and skill progression 18.48 32.01 31.68 11.55 4.95 0.66 0.33 0.33  Incorporate the mental component of

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Sean M. Bulger and Lynn D. Housner

The purpose of this study was to determine the critical exercise science competencies and associated instructional methods recommended for inclusion in the physical education teacher education curriculum. The two-round modified Delphi procedure involved the repeated circulation of a questionnaire to a small panel of content experts. The Delphi panel members were asked to rate each questionnaire item in terms of theoretical importance and pedagogical relevance. The data collected during the second round of questioning were employed to provide a final measure of consensus regarding the critical strength of each exercise science competency. The Delphi panel members were also asked to complete an addendum survey concerning their recommendations regarding the most effective instructional methods for the delivery of exercise science content. The results of this process provide a conceptual framework upon which physical education teacher educators can make future curricular decisions in the area of exercise science.

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Phillip Ward and Mary O’Sullivan

The present investigation reports on changes in the pedagogy and content of one teacher as a function of experience. The teacher was observed in Year 2 and in Year 6 teaching basketball and gymnastics in the same school. Data were collected using direct observations from videotapes of the lessons and semistructured interviews. Direct observation categories included lesson time, content type and sequence, instructional methods, teacher interactions, and student opportunities to respond. Three interviews were conducted with questions derived from videotape observation. A comparison of instructional units conducted in Year 2 and Year 6 reveals similarities in the pedagogical organization of the lessons, but differences in the content; less skill development occurred in Year 6 than in Year 2. Interviews revealed that skill expectations were less in Year 6 than they were in Year 2. These findings are interpreted in terms of three recurring themes: pedagogical reductionism, typicality, and isolation.

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David Tod

To date, there has been limited discussion of sport psychology consultant development, and there is not a comprehensive knowledge base on practitioner maturation. In this article the author argues that counselor-development literature might contribute to sport psychology consultant training and practitioner-maturation research. The author reviews counselor-development theory and highlights similarities with sport psychology literature, such as the documentation of trainees’ anxieties. Implications for practitioner training include matching instructional methods to trainees’ developmental needs, creating strategies for making use of modeling and simulated or real client interactions, and helping trainees deal with anxiety and conflict. Possible research directions include following sport psychology consultants longitudinally and recording experienced practitioners’ life histories. The use of counselor-development literature might assist educators and supervisors in their interactions with trainees, help practitioners reflect on and perhaps improve their service-delivery practices, and stimulate studies that contribute to a broader understanding of sport psychology consultant development.

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Robert N. Singer, James H. Cauraugh, Dapeng Chen, Gregg M. Steinberg, Shane G. Frehlich, and Ludong Wang

The trainability of anticipatory skills for tennis was assessed. Subjects (N = 34) from a beginning/intermediate tennis class were randomly assigned to either a mental quickness or a physical quickness (control) training group. They were tested in three laboratory tennis simulation tasks and three on-court tasks (serves, ground strokes, and volleys) 1 week before and after the 3-week quickness training program. Quickness Training × Gender × Test Session (2 × 2 × 2) ANOVAs with repeated measures on the third factor were conducted. For the laboratory tasks, the mental quickness group made faster decisions in reaction to serves, exhibited faster anticipation times, and showed improved accuracy in predicting serve type and location. No improvements in accuracy were found for the physical quickness group. For filmed match-play situations, the mental quickness group improved reaction times with training and committed fewer response errors. Implications for the design of instructional methods used in dynamic and fast-paced sports are discussed.

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Maureen R. Weiss, Vicki Ebbeck, and Diane M. Wiese-Bjornstal

Visual demonstrations have long been regarded as a critical instructional method for children’s motor skill and social-emotional development. Despite their widespread importance, skill demonstrations have often been characterized by a failure to consider age related differences in children’s cognitive and physical abilities. Similarly, the potential psychological effects of modeling on children’s behaviors in the physical domain have rarely been discussed. Thus the purpose of this paper is to review theoretical and research perspectives from the motor behavior and psychology literatures about developmental and psychological factors associated with children’s modeling of motor skills. Specifically, this paper will emphasize (a) how children perceive characteristics of a visual demonstration, (b) how they translate perceptions to actions that attempt to match the skill demonstration, and (c) how observational learning can be used to enhance self-confidence and motivation in youth. Practical implications for maximizing motor skill and psychosocial development in children are addressed in each section of the paper.

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Chiara Milanese, Gabriella Facci, Paola Cesari, and Carlo Zancanaro

The aim of the current work was to test the effects of an innovative teaching method in improving motor skills. We evaluated the effectiveness of an error-based instruction method (Method of Amplification of Error, MAE) in increasing the performance of 13-year-old school students in the standing long jump. We compared MAE with direct verbal instruction (DI) and no instruction (Control group). The rationale for the MAE method is that giving a participant the opportunity to experience directly his or her own main movement error will trigger a positive searching strategy that will in turn help him or her to improve performance. The effectiveness of MAE is because of the type of feedback provided, namely the same motor-perceptive language used by the participant. Results showed that for the MAE and DI groups the length of jump increased from pre- to post-instruction, but postinstruction performance of the MAE group was significantly that of both of the other groups. It appears that MAE is an easy-to-use method for rapidly improving motor performance in the school teaching setting.