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Juan Andrés Merino-Barrero, Alfonso Valero-Valenzuela, Noelia Belando Pedreño and Javier Fernandez-Río

(i.e., school, work, and family). Moreover, autonomy has been connected to personal responsibility, whereas social sensitivity (associated with relatedness) has been related to social responsibility ( Hellison, 2011 ). One instructional model that has been found to increase students’ intrinsic

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Joyce M. Harrison, Lisa A. Preece, Connie L. Blakemore, Robert P. Richards, Carol Wilkinson and Gilbert W. Fellingham

This study examined volleyball achievement and task-specific self-efficacy for 182 students in 6 beginning college volleyball classes taught using either the Mastery Learning or Skill Teaching models. Three instructors each taught one Mastery Learning and one Skill Teaching class. Assessments included the AAHPERD pass, set. and serve tests, the Stanley spike test, successful and unsuccessful game trials. Bandura-type self-efficacy scales, and a knowledge test. A random coefficients growth curve model analyzed the intercepts and slopes of the learning curves and revealed significant pre- to posttest improvement on skills tests, self-efficacy, and the percentage of correct passes and serves in game play for all students. No significant difference existed between the two models on average number of trials per day; rate of improvement for the pass, serve, or spike skills tests; self-efficacy; percentage of correct passes, sets, or serves in game play; contacts per serve in game play; or knowledge scores. The Mastery students’ rate of learning was significantly better on the set skills test (1.3 points higher) and the percentage of successful spikes in game play, in which they started significantly lower. The low-skilled students improved at a faster rate on the serve and on self-efficacy for the pass, set, and serve. Males had higher self-efficacy than females, while females increased more rapidly in self-efficacy for the pass, set, and serve. All results were analyzed at the .05 level of significance. Students learned to play volleyball and improved significantly in skill performances with either model.

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Greg Gardner and Gary L. Harrelson

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Peter Iserbyt, Jan Elen and Daniël Behets

This article addresses the issue of instructional guidance in reciprocal peer tutoring with task cards as learning tools. Eighty-six Kinesiology students (age 17–19 years) were randomized across four reciprocal peer tutoring settings, differing in quality and quantity of guidance, to learn Basic Life Support (BLS) with task cards. The separate and combined effect of two instructional guidance variables, role switching and role definition, was investigated on learning outcomes. In all settings student pairs were given 20 min to learn BLS. Individual student performance was measured before (baseline), immediately after (intervention) and two weeks later (retention). Repeated ANOVA showed strong learning gains but no significant differences between groups for total BLS scores. However, at retention significantly more students from the most guided condition remembered and consequently performed all BLS skills. It is concluded that guidance comprising role switching and role definition enhances skill retention in reciprocal peer tutoring with task cards.

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Gert Vande Broek, Filip Boen, Manu Claessens, Jos Feys and Tanja Ceux

This study investigated the decision-making process of three instructional groups (i.e., teacher-centered, student-centered with tactical questioning and student-centered without tactical questioning) in practical courses in volleyball among university students. All students (N = 122) performed a Tactical Awareness task on the correctness of the decision-making process at three testing phases (i.e., pretest, posttest and retention test). The results revealed that the tactical awareness of all students ameliorated after five lessons (posttest) and this effect persisted over time after six weeks (retention test). However, the tactical knowledge of the student-centered instructional group with tactical questioning improved significantly more than the two other instructional groups. These findings highlight the importance of a student-centered approach with an active involvement of students in evaluative skills to enhance the tactical decision-making process.

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Burhan Parsak and Leyla Saraç

Objective: The objectives of this study were to (a) identify Turkish middle-school physical education teachers’ self-reported use and perceptions of spectrum teaching styles, (b) determine the spectrum teaching styles the teachers use when teaching, and (c) examine whether gender and teaching experience were differentiating factors. Method: A convenience sample of 58 female and 62 male teachers working in 86 different middle schools located in Adana (Turkey) were recruited into the study. The data were collected using two validated instruments: the Physical Education Teachers’ Use of Teaching Styles and Perceptions of Styles Questionnaire, and the Instrument for Identifying Teaching Styles. Results: The findings based on the teachers’ reported perceptions (questionnaire data) revealed that the teachers employed the full spectrum of teaching styles in their classes, ranging from teacher centered to student centered, regardless of their gender or level of teaching experience. However, the data based on actual observations of teaching styles yielded less evidence that the self-reported styles were used in actual teaching settings. The teachers’ perceptions and their actual use of teaching styles did not vary according to the gender and/or teaching experience of the teacher. Conclusion: There is a discrepancy between teachers’ self-reported teaching styles and the actual use of the styles in their teaching.

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Matthew D. Curtner-Smith, Deborah. S. Baxter and Leah K. May

regarding the content they learn and the instructional models within which they work with that content. In addition, health-related exercise, sport, physical activity, and the kinesiological subdisciplines are viewed as mediums through which to develop students’ self-concepts and self-confidence. This can

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Greg Reid, Douglas Collier and Michelle Cauchon

Visual, verbal, and physical prompting systems promote motor skill acquisition in learners who are autistic (Collier & Reid, 1987). The purpose of the present study was to contrast the effectiveness of two instructional models, one that emphasized visual prompting and one that stressed physical prompting. Both models were designed to teach autistic children a bowling skill that was subdivided into 19 task analytic steps. All four subjects received 120 trials under both instructional models in a counterbalanced fashion. It was hypothesized that physical prompting would be the most effective model, but only limited support was generated in this regard. The subjects did benefit from carefully designed instruction, however, thus replicating previous findings.