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Cassandra Sparks, Chris Lonsdale, James Dimmock and Ben Jackson

the relatedness-supportive behaviors in their PE classes. A group discussion was then held around new relatedness-supportive strategies that teachers felt they could feasibly integrate into their instructional practices, as well as the potential challenges associated with such changes. This part of

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K. Andrew R. Richards, Colin G. Pennington and Oleg A. Sinelnikov

Occupational socialization theory (OST) has framed research on physical education (PE) teacher recruitment, professional preparation, and ongoing socialization in schools for nearly 40 yr. Using scoping-review methods, the authors sought to understand the current scope of published research on PE-teacher socialization using OST by descriptively and thematically reviewing 111 identified studies published in English-language journals between 1979 and 2015. Results indicate a predominance of qualitative, cross-sectional research related to PE-teacher socialization, most of which was conducted by a relatively small group of scholars. Themes derived from the analysis of study findings communicate the complexity of teacher socialization experiences and are used to develop recommendations for future research and practice that work toward helping improve teachers’ lived experiences while creating better contexts in which students can learn. The paper concludes with a discussion of extending OST research to understand the recruitment, professional education, and socialization of kinesiology faculty members and professionals across subdisciplines.

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Marian E. Kneer

The theory/practice gap in physical education instructional practices has been more or less assumed. Recent research employing data-based analysis has provided some insight about instructional procedures being used. There is little evidence about the existence, size, and reasons contributing to the perceived gap. Instructors N = (128) from 20 randomly selected Illinois secondary schools were interviewed via questionnaire to obtain evidence relative to the perceived gap in the use of instructional “theory.” Results indicate that an overall gap exists in the regular use of planning (40%), teaching approaches (64%), practice (31%), evaluation (40%), and teaching/learning environment procedures (18%). The reason most often given for not using recommended planning, practice, and evaluation procedures was an expressed belief that “it was not necessary” (42%). Recommended instructional practices were used significantly more often by teachers from large schools and by teachers with more inservice education. The amount of instructor teaching experience is significantly related to the use of selected instructional theory.

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Ken R. Lodewyk, Kimberley L. Gammage and Philip J. Sullivan

Increasing dropout rates in senior high school physical education, particularly among females, and unhealthy activity and obesity levels in youth have led to recommendations to assess potential contributing factors in physical education participation. Drawing from gender, body image, and social-cognitive theory, this study investigated relations between body size discrepancy, self-efficacy, test anxiety, and achievement in 316 high school physical education students. Gender differences were noted in body size discrepancy (females reported the desire to have a smaller body). Specifically in females, body size discrepancy predicted test anxiety, which predicted self-efficacy. Self-efficacy predicted achievement in both males and females. The results signal that gender-specific relations among these constructs are important factors to consider in the achievement scores of students in high school physical education. Physical education programs should model curricula and instructional practices that defuse potentially harmful body image discrepancies that seem most poignant in females while engaging all learners to feel competent and safe.

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A.E. Ted Wall

Selected research on the learning and performance of physical skills from a knowledge-based perspective provides the introduction for a discussion of the importance of practice in the developmental skill learning process. Recent evidence on the activity deficit hypothesis as well as knowledge-base differences as they relate to children with movement difficulties in physical activity settings provides the basis from which to present the developmental skill-learning gap hypothesis, which contends that as children with movement difficulties grow older, the skill-learning gap between them and their more physically proficient peers widens across instructional, practice, and competitive settings. Implications and suggestions for the learning and instruction of children with movement difficulties conclude the paper.

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Jesse Lee Rhoades and Amelia Mays Woods

This study examined National Board Certified Physical Education Teachers’ (NBCPET) instructional practices. Socialization theory guided this study. Data were collected on six NBCPETs using systematic observations and open-ended interviews. Each teacher was observed two full days, with data gathered from eight to 11 lessons for each teacher. Teachers participated in two interviews lasting approximately 45 min. Constant comparative methods were used to identify emergent themes. Systematic observations revealed that participants achieved an average score of 76.4 on the Qualitative Measures of Teacher Performance Scale. Academic Learning Time-Physical Education data showed that students of the NBCPETs, on average, experienced 38% motor appropriate practice time, 4.4% motor inappropriate practice time, and 3.8% off-task time during observed classes. Perceived change as a result of the National Board Certification process emerged as a theme through the data analysis. The results imply that this advanced certification process served as a positive agent of socialization.

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Katherine Bevans, Leslie-Anne Fitzpatrick, Betty Sanchez and Christopher B. Forrest

This study was conducted to identify student characteristics and instructional factors that impact student engagement in physical education (PE). Data were derived from the systematic observation of 124 sessions taught by 31 physical educators and the administration of health and PE engagement questionnaires to 2,018 students in grades 5-8. Physical activity was directly affected by student engagement and perceived competence in PE and indirectly affected by students’ body image through its association with PE engagement. Multilevel analyses revealed that the proportion of class time devoted to game play was negatively associated with student engagement in PE. Although less frequently used during PE sessions, skill practice was positively associated with student engagement and inactive instruction was negatively associated with student engagement. These effects were particularly pronounced among students with poor competence beliefs. Implications for PE instructional practice and future research are presented.

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Kevin Patton and Linda L. Griffin

This article describes comparative case studies of 2 of 12 veteran middle school physical education teachers participating in the Assessment Initiative for Middle School Physical Education (AIMS-PE), a reform-based teacher development project. The goals of the project were to help teachers examine and reframe their assessment practices and to design and implement curricular programs that encourage active teaching and learning. The following research questions guided this study: (a) What are the ways in which teachers changed their practices and/or beliefs concerning physical education teaching and assessment of student learning? and (b) what factors, both personal and institutional, influenced the level of changes (i.e., materials, teaching approaches, beliefs) experienced by each teacher? Three patterns of change were prominent in the teachers’ experiences: (1) increased planning and more efficient organization and management, (2) improved alignment of instruction processes and assessments, and (3) a shift in teacher roles characterized by the use of more indirect pedagogies to facilitate student-oriented small-sided games and student peer assessment. Even though these teachers made substantial changes, major shifts in assessment and instructional practices were not accomplished overnight. Changes required time, opportunity, and ongoing support.

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Jane E. Clark and Bradley D. Hatfield

with the daily instructional practices of physical education. Within our field, Cathy was a pioneer in attracting federal funding through the National Institutes of Health to support her research through the conduct of clinical trials to understand the impact of the physical education curriculum on