Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 3,356 items for :

  • "instructions" x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All
Restricted access

The Roles of Declarative Knowledge and Working Memory in Explicit Motor Learning and Practice Among Children With Low Motor Abilities

Femke van Abswoude, John van der Kamp, and Bert Steenbergen

, explicit instructions are the most common intervention to promote motor learning in physical education and therapy (e.g., Johnson, Burridge, & Demain, 2013 ), but the degree to which this is suitable for children with low motor abilities has not been studied as of yet. The present study aims to examine

Restricted access

Increased Carry Distance and X-Factor Stretch in Golf Through an External Focus of Attention

Jongseong An, Gabriele Wulf, and Seonjin Kim

We examined the effects of attentional focus instructions on the learning of movement form and carry distance in low-skilled golfers. The X-factor describes the rotation of the shoulders relative to the pelvis, and its increase during the downswing (so-called X-factor stretch) is associated with the carry distance of the ball. X-factor stretch and carry distance have been shown to be associated with an early weight shift toward the front leg during the downswing. In our study, one group (internal focus, IF) was instructed to focus on shifting their weight to their left foot while hitting the ball, whereas another group (external focus, EF) was instructed to focus on pushing against the left side of the ground. A control (C) group was not given attentional focus instructions. Participants performed 100 practice trials. Learning was assessed after a 3-day interval in a retention test without focus instructions. The EF group demonstrated a greater carry distance, X-factor stretch, and higher maximum angular velocities of the pelvis, shoulder, and wrist than both the IF and C groups, which showed very similar performances. These findings demonstrate that both movement outcome and form can be enhanced in complex skill learning by providing the learner with an appropriate external focus instruction. Moreover, they show that a single external focus cue can be sufficient to elicit an effective whole-body coordination pattern.

Restricted access

“I Spy with My Little Eye!”: Breadth of Attention, Inattentional Blindness, and Tactical Decision Making in Team Sports

Daniel Memmert and Philip Furley

Failures of awareness are common when attention is otherwise engaged. Such failures are prevalent in attention-demanding team sports, but surprisingly no studies have explored the inattentional blindness paradigm in complex sport game-related situations. The purpose of this paper is to explore the link between breadth of attention, inattentional blindness, and tactical decision-making in team ball sports. A series of studies revealed that inattentional blindness exists in the area of team ball sports (Experiment 1). More tactical instructions can lead to a narrower breadth of attention, which increases inattentional blindness, whereas fewer tactical instructions widen the breadth of attention in the area of team ball sports (Experiment 2). Further meaningful exogenous stimuli reduce inattentional blindness (Experiment 3). The results of all experiments are discussed in connection with consciousness and attention theories as well as creativity and training in team sports.

Restricted access

Readability of Postconcussion Home Care Instructions

Kristen C. Schellhase, Andrew A. McIntosh, Isis I.A. Jennings-Collier, Madison D. Dininny, Richard I. Zraick, and L. Colby Mangum

grade level 4 ; however, there is no known research that has assessed the readability of postconcussion home care instructions in the United States. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to analyze the readability of recommended postconcussion home care instructions. Methods Procedures This study was

Full access

Learning to Become Instructional Coaches in Health and Physical Education

Tim Fletcher, Ken Lodewyk, Katie Glover, and Sandra Albione

implementation across Ontario. These factors warranted a more concerted and systematic effort to support teachers in using the revised curriculum. In collaboration with curriculum consultants from H&PE and other subject areas, Ophea and the Ministry of Education identified instructional coaching as a promising

Restricted access

Universal Design for Learning and Differentiated Instruction in Physical Education

Mey A. van Munster, Laureen J. Lieberman, and Michelle A. Grenier

. Coates and Vickerman ( 2008 ) reviewed a range of strategies for differentiating PE for SWDs and recommended, among other suggestions, curricular adaptation and instructional modifications. Qi and Há ( 2012 ) also encouraged further research into curricular and instructional approaches that can

Restricted access

Physical Educators’ Qualifications and Instructional Practices Toward Students With Disabilities

Jaehun Jung, Layne Case, Samuel W. Logan, and Joonkoo Yun

Teachers’ instructional practices are positively associated with students’ academic achievements, motivational beliefs, school-wide disciplinary actions, physical activity levels, and student engagement ( Bevans et al., 2010 ; Jin & Yun, 2013 ; Liou & Ho, 2018 ; Scott & Gage, 2020 ). Students

Full access

Verbal Instruction Reduces Patellofemoral Joint Loading During Bodyweight Squatting

Thomas G. Almonroeder, Emily Watkins, and Tricia Widenhoefer

behind toes). These results appear to support the recommendation that individuals should limit anterior knee motion when squatting. However, exercise professionals often rely on verbal instruction to alter squat technique (vs physical restrictions). As a result, it is important to explore how verbal

Restricted access

Instructions Promoting an External Focus Are More Effective for Altering Impact Forces in Female Runners

Jacy Zajac, Kelsey Redman, Emily Watkins, and Thomas Gus Almonroeder

relatively high loading rates and running-related injury, gait retraining for runners often involves attempts to reduce the rate and/or magnitude of the impact peak in the vertical ground reaction force. 10 , 11 Simple verbal instructions are often given to runners when attempting to retrain their running

Restricted access

Anxiety and Ironic Errors of Performance: Task Instruction Matters

Recep Gorgulu, Andrew Cooke, and Tim Woodman

the wobble board during trials where they were instructed “don’t wobble” compared with trials where they were instructed to “hold steady.” Furthermore, in a dart throwing task, Oudejans, Binsch, and Bakker ( 2013 ) demonstrated that the combination of negatively worded instructions (“Be careful not to