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Karen K. Lee, Candace D. Rutt, Andrea Sharma, Michael Pratt, Judd Flesch, L. Michele Maynard, Keri Kennedy, Peggy Adams and Harold W. Kohl III

Background:

In this article, we examine the possibility of reducing time to conduct traffic volume audits through (1) reducing time for manual traffic counting and (2) using Department of Transportation (DOT) information.

Methods:

In audits of 824 road segments in 2 West Virginia (WV) communities, manual traffic counts were recorded for 1, 2, and 5 minutes in duration. Annual Average Daily Traffic (AADT) was calculated from counts. Available AADT from DOT was also collected. Percent agreement and a weighted kappa were calculated between 5-minute count and 1- and 2-minute count AADT categories and between 5-minute count and DOT AADT categories.

Results:

One- and 2-minute counts produced identical AADT categories as 5-minute counts in 93.4% and 95.0% of segments, respectively. Weighted kappa was 0.79 (95% CI = 0.74–0.85) and 0.85 (95% CI = 0.80–0.89), respectively. Forty-two segments (5.1%) had DOT data.

Conclusions:

DOT AADT was available for a small percentage of road segments assessed. The high agreement between AADT categories produced by 1- and 2-minute counts and 5-minute counts makes it reasonable to consider using 1- or 2-minute manual traffic counts if time or staffing constraints make it necessary. Possible generalizability of this methodology to other communities, particularly larger urban and suburban areas, will require further research.

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John R. Sirard, Peter Hannan, Gretchen J. Cutler and Dianne Nuemark-Sztainer

Background:

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate self-reported physical activity of young adults using 1-week and 1-year recall measures with an accelerometer as the criterion measure.

Methods:

Participants were a subsample (N = 121, 24 ± 1.7 yrs) from a large longitudinal cohort study. Participants completed a detailed 1-year physical activity recall, wore an accelerometer for 1 week and then completed a brief 1-week physical activity recall when they returned the accelerometer.

Results:

Mean values for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) from the 3 instruments were 3.2, 2.2, and 13.7 hours/wk for the accelerometer, 1-week recall, and 1-year recall, respectively (all different from each other, P < .001). Spearman correlations for moderate, vigorous, and MVPA between the accelerometer and the 1-week recall (0.30, 0.50, and 0.40, respectively) and the 1-year recall (0.31, 0.42, and 0.44, respectively) demonstrated adequate validity.

Conclusions:

Both recall instruments may be used for ranking physical activity at the group level. At the individual level, the 1-week recall performed much better in terms of absolute value of physical activity. The 1-year recall overestimated total physical activity but additional research is needed to fully test its validity.

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E. Andrew Pitchford, Leah R. Ketcheson, Hyun-Jin Kwon and Dale A. Ulrich

Background:

Research measuring physical activity behaviors during infancy is critical for evaluation of early intervention efforts to reduce rapid weight gain. There is little known about the physical activity patterns of infants, due in part to limited evidence for measurement procedures. This study sought to determine the minimal number of days and hours of accelerometry needed to reliably measure daily physical activity in infants using Generalizability (G) theory.

Methods:

A total of 23 infants (14 female, 9 male) wore an accelerometer on the right ankle and right wrist for 7 days. Data were manually cleaned to remove activity counts not produced by the infant. G theory analyses were conducted on the average counts per epoch.

Results:

Reliable estimates were observed with at least 2 days (G & Φ = .910) and 12 hours (G = .806, Φ = .803) at the ankle, and with at least 3 days (G & Φ = .906) and 15 hours (G = .802, Φ = .800) at the wrist.

Conclusions:

These results provide some of the first guidelines for objective physical activity measurement during infancy. Accelerometer monitoring periods of at least 3 days including all daytime hours appear to be sufficient for reliable measurement.

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Kelley K. Pettee Gabriel, Rebecca L. Rankin, Chong Lee, Mary E. Charlton, Pamela D. Swan and Barbara E. Ainsworth

Background:

The 400 m walk test has been used in older adults; however, the applicability in middle-aged populations is unknown.

Methods:

Data were obtained from the Evaluation of Physical Activity Measures in Middle-Aged Women (PAW) Study and included 66 women (52.6 ± 5.4 years). Participants were instructed to walk at a brisk, maintainable pace; time taken to complete the 400 m was recorded in seconds. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were used to assess test-retest reliability. Spearman rank order correlation coefficients were used to examine the concurrent validity of the walk test with cardiorespiratory fitness and associations with physical activity, body composition, flexibility, static balance, and muscular fitness, adjusted for age and body mass index.

Results:

Participants completed the walk at visits 4 and 5 in 248.0 and 245.0 seconds, respectively. The walk test had excellent reproducibility [ICC = 0.95 (95% CI: 0.92, 0.97)] and was significantly associated with estimated (ρ = −0.43; P < 0.0001) and measured (ρ = −0.56; P < 0.001) VO2max. The walk test was also significantly related to physical activity, body composition, flexibility, and balance.

Conclusions:

These findings support the utility of the 400 m walk test to estimate cardiorespiratory fitness and reflect free-living physical activity in healthy, middle-aged women.

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Ruth E. Taylor-Piliae, Joan M. Fair, William L. Haskell, Ann N. Varady, Carlos Iribarren, Mark A. Hlatky, Alan S. Go and Stephen P. Fortmann

Background:

This study examined the construct validity and reliability of the new 2-item Stanford Brief Activity Survey (SBAS).

Methods:

Secondary analysis was conducted using data collected from the healthy older controls (n = 1023) enrolled in the Atherosclerotic Disease Vascular Function and Genetic Epidemiology (ADVANCE) study. Construct validity was examined by regression analyses to evaluate significant trends (P ≤ .05) across the SBAS activity categories for the selected psychological health factors measured at baseline and year 2, adjusted for gender, ethnicity and education level. Test-retest reliability was performed using Spearman’s rank correlation.

Results:

At baseline, subjects were 66 ± 2.8 years old, 38% female, 77% married, 61% retired, 24% college graduate, and 68% Caucasian. At baseline, lower self-reported stress, anxiety, depression, and cynical distrust, and higher self-reported mental and physical well-being were significantly associated with higher levels of physical activity (p trend ≤ 0.01). These associations held at year 2. The test-retest reliability of the SBAS was statistically significant (rs= 0.62, P < .001).

Conclusion:

These results provide evidence of the construct validity and reliability of the SBAS in older adults. We also found a strong dose-response relationship between regular physical activity and psychological health in older adults, independent of gender, education level and ethnicity.

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Nadia C. Valentini, Lisa M. Barnett, Paulo Felipe Ribeiro Bandeira, Glauber Carvalho Nobre, Larissa Wagner Zanella and Rodrigo Flores Sartori

The pictorial scale of Perceived Movement Skill Competence (PMSC) was developed to assess young children’s perceptions of competence in fundamental motor skills (FMS) and in active play (AP). The objectives of the present study were to assess validity and reliability with Brazilian children. Nineteen health-related professionals and 331 children (4 to 8 years old) were enrolled in the study. Kappa concordance coefficient, intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC), polychoric correlations, and confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) were used. The back-reverse translation prevents the bias of a single translation. Experts and professionals confirmed the clarity and pertinence of the items with high agreement scores (values > .90). Test-retest reliability results showed strong ICC (values > .90). The Cronbach’s alpha coefficient showed good internal consistency (α values from .70–.85). The CFA showed appropriate fit indexes for a three-factor model (i.e., six object control, six locomotion, and six AP items) and a two-factor model (i.e., 12 FMS and six AP items). However, the two-factor model showed superior indexes (χ2/df = 3.1; Root Mean Square Error of Approximation = .06; Goodness-Of-Fit Index = .90; Comparative Fit Index = .91; Akaike Information Criterion = 485.8). The PMSC is a valid and reliable assessment to use in Brazil.

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Abigail L. Gilbert, Jungwha Lee, Madeleine Ma, Pamela A. Semanik, Loretta DiPietro, Dorothy D. Dunlop and Rowland W. Chang

Background:

Sedentary behavior is associated with increased risk of functional decline and disability. Individuals with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) spend more time sedentary than healthy adults. Self-reported assessment of sedentary behavior has not been well-developed in this patient population.

Methods:

172 adults with RA wore an accelerometer for 7 days and completed a modified version of the Yale Physical Activity Survey (YPAS). YPAS-derived sedentary estimates included 1) daily sitting categories (<3, 3 to 6, 6 to 8, >8 hours/day), 2) continuous daily sedentary time calculated by subtracting hours spent sleeping or in physical activity from a 24-hour day, and 3) rank order of YPAS-derived continuous daily sedentary time. Each estimate was compared with objective accelerometer-derived sedentary time using linear regression and Bland-Altman analysis.

Results:

A significant relationship was observed between accelerometer-derived sedentary time and all 3 estimates. Bland-Altman plot demonstrated systematic bias, however Bland-Altman plot of rank-order demonstrated that the ranked YPAS-derived continuous estimate was an unbiased predictor of ranked accelerometer sedentary time though limits of agreement were wide.

Conclusions:

This patient-reported approach using the YPAS shows promise to be a useful tool to identify the most sedentary patients. Providing a practical and accurate tool may increase the frequency sedentary behavior is assessed by clinicians.

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Fiona C. Bull, Tahlia S. Maslin and Timothy Armstrong

Purpose:

Instruments to assess physical activity are needed for (inter)national surveillance systems and comparison.

Methods:

Male and female adults were recruited from diverse sociocultural, educational and economic backgrounds in 9 countries (total n = 2657). GPAQ and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) were administered on at least 2 occasions. Eight countries assessed criterion validity using an objective measure (pedometer or accelerometer) over 7 days.

Results:

Reliability coefficients were of moderate to substantial strength (Kappa 0.67 to 0.73; Spearman's rho 0.67 to 0.81). Results on concurrent validity between IPAQ and GPAQ also showed a moderate to strong positive relationship (range 0.45 to 0.65). Results on criterion validity were in the poor-fair (range 0.06 to 0.35). There were some observed differences between sex, education, BMI and urban/rural and between countries.

Conclusions:

Overall GPAQ provides reproducible data and showed a moderate-strong positive correlation with IPAQ, a previously validated and accepted measure of physical activity. Validation of GPAQ produced poor results although the magnitude was similar to the range reported in other studies. Overall, these results indicate that GPAQ is a suitable and acceptable instrument for monitoring physical activity in population health surveillance systems, although further replication of this work in other countries is warranted.