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Tao Chen, Kenji Narazaki, Yuka Haeuchi, Sanmei Chen, Takanori Honda and Shuzo Kumagai

Background:

This cross-sectional study was performed to examine associations of objectively measured sedentary time (ST) and breaks in sedentary time (BST) with instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) disability in Japanese community-dwelling older adults.

Methods:

The sample comprised 1634 older adults (mean age: 73.3 y, men: 38.4%). Sedentary behavior was measured using a triaxial accelerometer. Disability was defined as inability in at least 1 of the IADL tasks using the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of Competence.

Results:

After adjusting for potential confounders and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), longer ST was significantly associated with higher likelihood of IADL disability, whereas a greater number of BST was associated with lower likelihood of IADL disability. ST and BST remained statistically significant after mutual adjustment with odds ratio of 1.30 (95% confidence interval [CI)], 1.00–1.70) and 0.80 (95% CI, 0.65–0.99), respectively.

Conclusions:

This study first demonstrated that shorter ST and more BST were associated with lower risk of IADL disability independent of MVPA and that the association for ST was independent of BST and vice versa. These findings suggest not only total ST but also the manner in which it is accumulated may contribute to the maintenance of functional independence in older adults.

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Ching-Yi Wang, Ming-Hsia Hu, Hui-Ya Chen and Ren-Hau Li

To determine the test–retest reliability and criterion validity of self-reported function in mobility and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) in older adults, a convenience sample of 70 subjects (72.9 ± 6.6 yr, 34 male) was split into able and disabled groups based on baseline assessment and into consistently able, consistently disabled, and inconsistent based on repeat assessments over 2 weeks. The criterion validities of the self-reported measures of mobility domain and IADL-physical subdomain were assessed with concurrent baseline measures of 4 mobility performances, and that of the self-reported measure of IADL-cognitive subdomain, with the Mini-Mental State Examination. Test–retest reliability was moderate for the mobility, IADL-physical, and IADL-cognitive subdomains (κ = .51–.66). Those who reported being able at baseline also performed better on physical- and cognitive-performance tests. Those with variable performance between test occasions tended to report inconsistently on repeat measures in mobility and IADL-cognitive, suggesting fluctuations in physical and cognitive performance.

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Mandy Peacock, Julie Netto, Polly Yeung, Joanne McVeigh and Anne-Marie Hill

walking but also includes instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) ( World Health Organization, 2010 ). IADLs related to responsibilities for owning a pet include feeding, grooming, interacting with one’s pet, and managing money to care for pets’ needs. The purpose of the study was to explore the

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Erwin Huiszoon, Paul L. de Vreede, Inge Bramsen, Chris H.Z. Kuiper and Harald S. Miedema

The Assessment of Daily Activity Performance (ADAP) test has been developed to measure the physical capacity of older adults to carry out instrumental activities of daily living (ADL). The present study explores the option to create a less time-consuming short version of the ADAP that can be completed in the individual’s home environment and that imposes less of a physical burden. Data from 141 independently living women aged 70 and older were analyzed using principal components analysis (PCA). PCA identified two factors, on which 10 of the original 21 items had loaded sufficiently to be eligible for inclusion in a short version. The ADAP short version is considerably shorter than the original test and provides a good representation of the constructs being measured. More research is necessary to develop a short version of the ADAP that is easily applicable in the home environment of older adults.

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Fuzhong Li, Peter Harmer, Nicole L. Wilson and K. John Fisher

This study examined the effect of cobblestone-mat walking on health-related outcomes in older adults. Participants (mean age 72.6, N=40) were randomized into either an 8-week cobblestone-mat walking activity (n = 22) or a control group (n = 18). Cobblestone-mat walking entailed three 45-min sessions per week. Primary outcomes included SF-12 (mental, physical), instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs), psychophysical well-being, daytime sleepiness, and pain. Secondary outcomes included resting blood pressure and perceived control of falls. The walkers experienced significantly improved SF-12 scores, IADLs, and psychophysical well-being and significantly reduced daytime sleepiness and pain. They also reported significantly improved perceptions of control over falls. A significant between-groups difference in resting diastolic blood pressure was observed, with reductions in the walkers. A significant within-group reduction in systolic blood pressure was observed in the walkers only. The data indicate that cobblestone-mat walking can significantly improve health-related outcomes in older adults.

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George J. Holland, Kiyoji Tanaka, Ryosuke Shigematsu and Masaki Nakagaichi

This review examines the influences of physiological aging processes on connective tissue, joint integrity, flexibility (range of motion [ROM]), and physical functions of older adults. Studies that attempted to improve older adults' ROM are also critiqued. Multiple mechanisms of musculoskeletal and soft-tissue degeneration, as well as disease processes (osteoporosis, arthritis, atherosclerosis), contribute to significant decreases in neuromuscular function and ROM in older adults, all of which can be exacerbated by disuse influences. No delineation of disuse effects on the rate of aging-related decrements in ROM can be provided, however, because long-term investigations (with physical activity controls) have not been conducted. Research efforts have documented both upper and lower extremity decrements in ROM with development of physical impairments, reductions in basic and instrumental activities of daily living, and progression of disability. There is limited research evidence that either specialized stretch-training or general-exercise intervention protocols moderately improve ROM in older adults and the frail elderly.

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Erin Gemmill, Constance M. Bayles, Kathleen McTigue, William Satariano, Ravi Sharma and John W. Wilson

Background:

Adherence to protocols of accelerometer use by participants of research studies is crucial to ensure the most accurate measure of their physical activity.

Methods:

We used data from a study of 201 individuals 65 years of age and older to examine whether aging effects on physical and cognitive health limit the ability of an older adult to be adherent to an accelerometer protocol.

Results:

A comparison of participants who met the adherent person criteria with those who did not showed that the percentage of participants whose income is $20,000 or greater, the percentage of participants who reported white race, and the mean number of school grades completed were significantly different between the 2 groups. Logistic regression analyses showed that the best multivariate model to predict being a valid person included Instrumental Activities of Daily Living score, while the best multivariate model to predict being an adherent person included Modified Guralnik Lower Body Score and Mini-Mental State Examination Score.

Conclusions:

This study found that certain measures of physical and cognitive functioning were the best predictors of adherence to an accelerometer protocol among older adults.

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Eeva Aartolahti, Sirpa Hartikainen, Eija Lönnroos and Arja Häkkinen

This study was conducted to determine the characteristics of health and physical function that are associated with not starting strength and balance training (SBT). The study population consisted of 339 community-dwelling individuals (75–98 years, 72% female). As part of a population-based intervention study they received comprehensive geriatric assessment, physical activity counseling, and had the opportunity to take part in SBT at the gym once a week. Compared with the SBT-adopters, the nonadopters (n = 157, 46%) were older and less physically active, had more comorbidities and lower cognitive abilities, more often had sedative load of drugs or were at the risk of malnutrition, had lower grip strength and more instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) difficulties, and displayed weaker performance in Berg Balance Scale and Timed Up and Go assessments. In multivariate models, higher age, impaired cognition, and lower grip strength were independently associated with nonadoption. In the future, more individually-tailored interventions are needed to overcome the factors that prevent exercise initiation.

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Rachael C. Stone, Zina Rakhamilova, William H. Gage and Joseph Baker

–100%), with higher mean percentages indicating greater overall balance confidence. (d) The Lawton Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale (IADLs; Lawton & Brody, 1969 ; Cronbach’s alpha = .91) assesses the degree to which one is able to perform eight daily tasks necessary for independent living (i

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Maria Priscila Wermelinger Ávila, Jimilly Caputo Corrêa, Alessandra Lamas Granero Lucchetti and Giancarlo Lucchetti

were used as exclusionary criteria for participation in the study ( Secretaria de saúde-MG, 2008 ). Lawton and Brody Scale Used to identify functional capacity by evaluating Older adults’ performance on instrumental activities of daily living ( Lawton & Brody, 1970 ). It was translated to Portuguese