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Joke Simons, Siegfried Dewitte and Willy Lens

This study tested the hypothesis that the reason a person engages in a physical education activity (instrumentality) has an effect on his or her state goal orientation, time spent practicing, task enjoyment, motivation, effort, and ultimately on his/her performance. Participants, 695 college students (340 M, 355 F; mean age 19.7 years, range = 18–22) who were enrolled in physical education classes, learned a dribble-shooting basketball task. Before practicing it for 20 minutes, they received one of the three instructions underlining the personal and/or future relevance of the task. Instructions emphasizing the obligatory nature of the task led to a decrease in motivated behavior, performance, and state task orientation, but an increase in the state ego orientation. Instructions emphasizing the personal and future relevance enhanced state task orientation, motivated behavior, and performance. Instructions that only emphasized personal relevance fell in between. The results of this study showed that instructions are powerful tools that can easily affect the quality of motivation and either strengthen or undermine students’ motivational behavior, performance, and future participation, at least when students have little or no experience with the task.

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Elizabeth A. Daniels

Past research has shown that teen girls consume media that frequently contains objectified images of women. Little is known about whether these girls are also exposed to empowering images, such as women playing sports. The current study evaluated the prevalence of these images in five popular magazines aimed at teen girls. Of the 620 photographs examined, only 7% showed women engaged in physical activity or sport. The majority of these images showed women in fitness activities that emphasize shape and muscle tone, rather than in sport activities that emphasize instrumentality. Results demonstrate that women athletes are largely invisible in mainstream magazines for teen girls.

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Katie E. McGibbon, Megan E. Shephard, Mark A. Osborne, Kevin G. Thompson and David B. Pyne

, Krumm S , Kanthak J , Hertel G . “Don’t let the group down”: facets of instrumentality moderate the motivating effects of groups in a field experiment . Eur J Soc Psychol . 2012 ; 42 ( 5 ): 533 – 538 . doi: 10.1002/ejsp.1875 5. Skorski S , Etxebarria N , Thompson KG . Breaking the

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Allyson C. Hartzell and Marlene A. Dixon

organizations were held by White men. Findings revealed four dominant themes: instrumentality, relationality, emotionality/passion, and homogeneity. Within the theme of instrumentality, there were discourses of toughness and perseverance, availability, and impression management. In regard to toughness and

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Stanley Thangaraj

my children. 5 I do not know nor do I theorize Woods’s intentions; that is not of concern in this article. I look at the structure of the text (the press conference) and offer a reading of religion and its instrumentality in “comparative racializations” ( Hong & Ferguson, 2011 ) and subsequent

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Susan Lagaert, Mieke Van Houtte and Henk Roose

has mainly focused on masculinity and femininity based on an individual’s self-rating of masculine and feminine personality traits (e.g., independence, dominance, instrumentality vs. sensitivity, empathy, warmth, expressiveness) (see Athenstaedt, 2002 ; Athenstaedt et al., 2009 ; Colley et

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Adam Love and Seungmo Kim

of pharmaceutical sales teams . Unpublished data analysis, Indiana University School of Business , Bloomington . McAllister , S.B. , Kamdar , D. , Morrison , E.W. , & Turban , D.B. ( 2007 ). Disentangling role perceptions: How perceived role breadth, discretion, instrumentality, and

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Vicki D. Schull and Lisa A. Kihl

out in a variety of organizational settings. In a sport setting, Knoppers and Anthonissen ( 2008 ) found that male sport managers used gendered discourses to present their work in ways that created heroic masculine forms of leadership. Participant discourses of instrumentality (e

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Bård Erlend Solstad, Andreas Ivarsson, Ellen Merethe Haug and Yngvar Ommundsen

instrumentality of choice, are likely to spend less time with the instrumental activity because the imposed contingency tend to undermine their intrinsic motivation. Moreover, when setting limits on athletes’ behavior, a coach who gives controlling sports coaching to athletes is likely to “pay little attention to

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Ben Larkin, Brendan Dwyer and Chad Goebert

fantasy team. (b) What do you think causes this feeling? 11. To what extent do you view the players on your fantasy team as tools to help you accomplish your goals? ( Instrumentality ) (a) What do you think is the root cause of this feeling? 12. Do you feel any concern about players being overworked by