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Effect of Acute and Short-Term Administration of Vanadyl Sulphate on Insulin Sensitivity in Healthy Active Humans

Roy L.P.G. Jentjens and Asker E. Jeukendrup

Vanadium compounds have been shown to have insulin-like properties in rats and non-insulin-dependent diabetic humans. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether the effects of acute and short-term administration of vanadyl sulphate (VS) on insulin sensitivity also exist in healthy active individuals. Five male and 2 female participants (age: 24.9 ± 1.5 years; height: 176.1 ± 2.9 cm; body mass: 70.1 ± 2.9 kg) underwent 3 oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT). The first OGTT was performed to obtain a baseline index of insulin sensitivity (ISI). On the night preceding the second OGTT, participants ingested 100 mg of VS, and the acute effects of VS on ISI were examined. For the next 6 days, participants were instructed to ingest 50 mg of VS twice daily, and a final OGTT was performed on day 7 to determine the short-term effects of VS on ISI. No differences were found in fasting plasma glucose and insulin concentrations after VS administration. Furthermore, ISI after 1 day and 7 days of VS administration was not different compared with baseline ISI (4.8±0.1 vs. 4.7±0.1 vs. 4.7 ± 0.1, respectively). These results demonstrate that there are no acute and short-term effects of VS administration on insulin sensitivity in healthy humans.

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Effects of Coffee Components on Muscle Glycogen Recovery: A Systematic Review

Laís Monteiro Rodrigues Loureiro, Caio Eduardo Gonçalves Reis, and Teresa Helena Macedo da Costa

, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, trigonelline, secoisolariciresinol, and oxokahweol (10 −12 –10 −6 M for 60 min); cafestol and caffeic acid (10 −12 –10 −8 M for 72 hr) Cafestol and caffeic acid acutely and chronically increased insulin secretion from beta cells. Cafestol increased glucose uptake in

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Assessment of Safety and Glycemic Control During Football Tournament in Children and Adolescents With Type 1 Diabetes—Results of GoalDiab Study

Andrzej Gawrecki, Aleksandra Araszkiewicz, Agnieszka Szadkowska, Grzegorz Biegański, Jan Konarski, Katarzyna Domaszewska, Arkadiusz Michalak, Bogda Skowrońska, Anna Adamska, Dariusz Naskręt, Przemysława Jarosz-Chobot, Agnieszka Szypowska, Tomasz Klupa, and Dorota Zozulińska-Ziółkiewicz

knowledge about behavior during physical activity ( 17 ). Thanks to the progress and application of new technologies in the treatment of diabetes; these barriers have been largely overcome in the last decade ( 31 ). The use of analog insulins, insulin pumps, and continuous glucose measurement systems has

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Effect of Preexercise Ingestion of Modified Amylomaize Starch on Glycemic Response While Cycling

Rachel B. Parks, Hector F. Angus, Douglas S. King, and Rick L. Sharp

synergistic actions of insulin and muscle contractions stimulated GLUT4 translocation until counterregulatory hormones normalized blood glucose by ∼30 min into exercise ( Defronzo et al., 1981 ; Hargreaves et al., 1987 ). However, subsequent studies could not replicate the results, instead finding

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Effect of Exercise Training on Cardiac Biomarkers in At-Risk Populations: A Systematic Review

Susan Sullivan Glenney, Derrick Paul Brockemer, Andy C. Ng, Michael A. Smolewski, Vladimir M. Smolgovskiy, and Adam S. Lepley

effects of exercise training on cardiovascular health. Traditional serum biomarkers, such as total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), glucose, C-reactive protein (CRP), insulin, and triglyceride levels, have been used to study the effects of exercise interventions

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Insulin’s Contribution to Growth in Children and the Potential for Exercise to Mediate Insulin’s Action

Craig A. Horswill, William B. Zipf, C. Lawrence Kien, and E. Bowie Kahle

Insulin is an anabolic hormone with stimulatory effects on glucose and amino acid uptake, possibly protein synthesis, and bone growth, and inhibitory effects on protein breakdown. The precise role of insulin in the growth of healthy children is unclear, but two clinical models can be examined to illustrate insulin’s potential role in the growth of children. The cystic fibrosis (CF) patient, who exhibits poor linear growth and low lean body mass, may exhibit inadequate insulin secretion or impaired insulin action. The obese child typically has an excess of peripheral insulin, an associated acceleration of linear growth, and an accretion of lean body mass and adipose tissue. Speculation is offered on the putative role of exercise in affecting insulin action and secretion, which in turn could impact growth in children with CF or obesity.

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Impaired Insulin Profiles Following a Single Night of Sleep Restriction: The Impact of Acute Sprint Interval Exercise

Emma L. Sweeney, Daniel J. Peart, Irene Kyza, Thomas Harkes, Jason G. Ellis, and Ian H. Walshe

 al., 2006 ). Experimental studies demonstrate impaired glucose control following sleep restriction (SR; Knutson et al., 2007 ), with a single night of restriction reducing whole-body insulin sensitivity by 20% ( Donga et al., 2010 ). The proposed mechanisms underlying impaired glucose regulation following

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The Effect of Carbohydrate Ingestion Following Eccentric Resistance Exercise on AKT/mTOR and ERK Pathways: A Randomized, Double-Blinded, Crossover Study

Vandre C. Figueiredo, Michelle M. Farnfield, Megan L.R. Ross, Petra Gran, Shona L. Halson, Jonathan M. Peake, David Cameron-Smith, and James F. Markworth

et al., 2014 ). This pathway is a central regulator of cellular growth in response to mechanical stimulation, nutrition, and growth factors/hormones ( Hoppeler et al., 2011 ; Laplante & Sabatini, 2013 ). Insulin activates AKT through the PI3K/PDPK1 stimulation ( Hemmings & Restuccia, 2012 ). AKT is

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Influence of Insulin Application Time and High-Intensity Intermittent Exercise on Hypoglycemic Risk in Adolescents With Type 1 Diabetes

Valderi de Abreu de Lima, Gabriel Ribeiro Cordeiro, Luis Paulo Gomes Mascarenhas, Suzana Nesi França, Juliana Pereira Decimo, Andréia Araújo Porchat de leão, Camila Kapp Fritz, and Neiva Leite

hypoglycemia in adults with T1DM ( 16 , 20 ). The results are controversial when analyzing the risk of hypoglycemia and intermittent exercise in children and adolescents, especially when examining the timing of insulin administration and HIIE ( 8 ). Therefore, the present study aimed to examine the influence

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Influence of Insulin Resistance on the Association Between Physical Activity and Heart Rate Variability: The Toon Health Study

Isao Saito, Koutatsu Maruyama, Tadahiro Kato, Yasunori Takata, Kiyohide Tomooka, Ryoichi Kawamura, Yuichi Uesugi, Yoshihiko Naito, Haruhiko Osawa, and Takeshi Tanigawa

Physical inactivity increases the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence, CVD mortality, and all-cause mortality in association with weight gain, dyslipidemia, and development of metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and hypertension. 1 – 3 In addition to these findings, the presence of insulin