teams in Canada showed that coaches had a high degree of uncertainty when selecting fringe players and often relied on their instincts or intuition to evaluate players’ “intangible characteristics” (p. 148). These intangible characteristics included the personality of players, the degree to which
Ryan W. Guenter, John G.H. Dunn, and Nicholas L. Holt
Dan Covell and Claude Catapano
Byungmo Ku, Megan MacDonald, Bridget Hatfield, and Kathy Gunter
on the literature. Parental support in the context of a child’s activity ( Beets et al., 2010 ) can be divided into two types: tangible and intangible support. Tangible parental support refers to the overt behaviors performed by parents that directly facilitate their children’s PA, whereas intangible
Brent D. Oja, Henry T. Wear, and Aaron W. Clopton
A myriad of scholars have explored the notion of sport events as community assets in both fiduciary economic terms (e.g., Li, Blake, & Thomas, 2013 ; Mills & Rosentraub, 2013 ) and intangible terms (e.g., Burgan & Mules, 1992 ; Chalip, 2006 ; Gibson, 1998 ; Ritchie, 1984 ). Specific examples
Claudio M. Rocha
committees have strongly relied on the concept of legacy. Legacy is any tangible or intangible structure that is created as a consequence of hosting the OG ( Preuss, 2007 ). Legacies are not necessarily positive, although the IOC and organizers tend to assume that negative legacies do not exist when they
June Won and J. Lucy Lee
Typology. Digital AP can be further classified between: Tangibility-based brand positioning and Intangibility-based brand positioning. Tangibility-based positions highlight a product’s functionality and physical attributes. The primary focus is on features and product-related information that
Jared F.K. Monaghan and Claudio M. Rocha
out that unfortunately intangible benefits are difficult to describe and even harder to calculate, causing them to be easily forgotten versus glaring costs ( Vancouver Sun , February 20, 2003). Proponents did note that the Olympics could bring tangible community benefits like increased employment
James Jianhui Zhang
This lecture was intended to continue the discussions on why and how to establish a distinctive sport management discipline that was initiated by previous Earle F. Zeigler Lecture Award recipients. Through applying the dual process theory (Dijksterhuis & Nordgren, 2006), it was intended to explore the differences between tangible and intangible variables, how they have been studied as distinct perspectives, and how they can be integrated through two application examples, one on service quality of sport event operations and the other on market demand for sport events. Hopefully, this lecture would help reenergize the discussions and inquiries on this important matter. These illustrations are certainly debatable and subject to further empirical examinations.
Milena M. Parent and Peter O. Foreman
Although identity, image, and reputation are important issues for the sport management field, little research has examined how sport organizations construct and manage such intangible yet critical aspects of their organizations. This article addresses this gap in the literature by exploring the process of identity construction within organizing committees of major sporting events. The insights gained from two case studies indicate that committees draw on three types of identity referents: the nature of the event, context, and key individuals of organizing committees. These referents are projected as images from the organizing committee to various stakeholder groups and then reflected back to the organizing committee. In addition, images are often received by stakeholders through indirect channels of transmission, especially the media, further complicating the process of image and identity management. Finally, organizing committees attempt to manage the process primarily via verbal and symbolic communication strategies.
Stacy-Lynn Sant and Daniel S. Mason
In preparation for Olympic bids, city officials and event managers often cite event “legacies” and argue that such benefits may be realized for decades. Meanwhile, public support is extremely important when moving forward with a bid; legacy has therefore become a prominent feature in bid committee rhetoric and in the management of event bidding, and how the notion of legacy is managed in the media by bid proponents will be key to a successful bid. This paper explores how legacy was framed in the newspaper media during the Olympic bid in Vancouver, where city officials, local politicians, and members of the bid committee focused their pro-bid arguments around infrastructure, economic, and social legacies. Results show how these legacies entered the bid discourse at various points in the domestic and international bid competitions, as supporters moved away from discussions of new infrastructure development and economic impacts toward intangible event benefits.