The aim of this research was to examine the temporal limits of binocular and monocular integration useful for one-handed catching. Participants performed 20 one-handed catching trials in 12 conditions (N = 240) defined according to the type of viewing (binocular, monocular) and the manipulation of the visual sample (continuous, intermittent). Catching performance deteriorated significantly when there was no visual information available for 80 ms between 20-ms visual samples provided simultaneously to each eye. However, there was no change in catching performance when continuous monocular vision was available for 80 ms between the binocular samples. Performance under monocular viewing decreased significantly when intermittent samples were separated by less than 20 ms. These results confirm that the equivocality in previously reported temporal limits of binocular integration is due to the different arrangement of the intermittent vision conditions and hence the information available between intermittent samples.
Simon Bennett, Derek Ashford, and Digby Elliott
Peter F. Vint and Richard N. Hinrichs
Isometric knee extension force and average integrated EMG of the vastus lateralis muscle were obtained from 27 healthy subjects using a maximum effort, ramp and hold protocol. In each of the 125 total trials mat were included in the analysis, a 2-s plateau region was extracted and divided into two adjacent 1000-ms bins. Variability and reliability of bin-to-bin measurements of force and EMG were then evaluated across 14 different integration intervals ranging from 10 to 1000 ms. Statistical analyses of bin-to-bin variability measures demonstrated that integration intervals of 250 ms and longer significantly reduced variability and improved reliability of average integrated EMG values during maximum effort isometric exertions. Bin-to-bin EMG reliability increased from .728 at 10 ms to .991 at 1000 ms. Force parameters appeared less sensitive to changes in length of the integration interval. It was suggested that longer intervals might also improve the validity of the EMG-force relationship during maximum effort isometric exertions by reducing problems associated with electromechanical delay.
Athanasios Papaioannou, Dimitrios Milosis, and Christos Gotzaridis
; Westerhold, 2000 ). However, although authors theoretically addressed the connections of physics with PE (e.g., Downing & Lander, 1997 ; Hatch & Smith, 2004 ), to the best of our knowledge, no one has made an intervention to examine any kind of effects stemming from the integration of physics with PE (see
Rory Mack, Jeff Breckon, Joanne Butt, and Ian Maynard
action-orientated approaches, such as cognitive-behavioral therapies and strategies, which are dominant in the discipline. This integration was, in fact, the purpose of MI upon its conception, with the MI spirit (ways of being) supporting the techniques (ways of doing) of other approaches ( Miller & Rose
Steve Hansen, Spencer J. Hayes, and Simon J. Bennett
The current study examined the effect of interocular delay in a manual aiming task that required accurate end-point placement, but not precise control of a grip aperture. Participants aimed in binocular, monocular, or alternating monocular vision conditions. For the latter, 25ms monocular samples were provided to alternate eyes without delay (0ms), or a delay of 25 or 50ms. The interocular delay resulted in a longer movement time, caused by a longer time-to-peak and time-after-peak velocity, and a reduction in peak velocity. We suggest that the change in kinematics reflect a strategic response to preserve terminal aiming accuracy and variability when faced with an informational perturbation. These findings indicate that the response to the interocular delay between alternating monocular samples depends on the task-specific information used to control that behavior.
Alexander J. Bedard, Kevin A. Bigelman, Lynn R. Fielitz, Jeffrey D. Coelho, William B. Kobbe, Renard O. Barone, Nicholas H. Gist, and John E. Palmer
education classes, especially boxing ( Bedard, Peterson, & Barone, 2017 ; Defense Advisory Committee on Women in the Services, 2017 ; Lamothe, 2016 ; Nakrosis, 2017 ). When looking to integrate combative physical education and sport offerings for both men and women, there are a number of important
Leeann M. Lower-Hoppe, Liz A. Wanless, Sarah M. Aldridge, and Daniel W. Jones
higher education is largely in response to the movement to increase online distance education for revenue generation ( Legon & Garrett, 2017 ). However, blended learning is identified as “perhaps the most successful approach to integrating technology into pedagogy,” as pedagogical strategies are
Rory Mack, Jeff Breckon, Joanne Butt, and Ian Maynard
The purpose of this study was to explore how sport and exercise psychologists working in sport understand and use motivational interviewing (MI). Eleven practitioners participated in semistructured interviews, and inductive thematic analysis identified themes linked to explicit use of MI, such as building engagement and exploring ambivalence to change; the value of MI, such as enhancing the relationship, rolling with resistance and integrating with other approaches; and barriers to the implementation of MI in sport psychology, such as a limited evidence-base in sport. Findings also indicated considerable implicit use of MI by participants, including taking an athlete-centered approach, supporting athlete autonomy, reflective listening, demonstrating accurate empathy, and taking a nonprescriptive, guiding role. This counseling style appears to have several tenets to enhance current practice in sport psychology, not least the enhancement of therapeutic alliance.
Joey Lightner, Brandon C. Irwin, and Matthew Chrisman
, emotional support) characteristics, each with unique associations on health behaviors, including physical activity. Social integration is one particular characteristic of social relationships and refers to the extent to which one is embedded in a social network or community. 5 Social integration is one of
Joanna M. Auger and Nancy L.I. Spencer
inclusion within it. The questions were co-constructed between the authors drawing on their perspectives, scaffolded using the relevant literature on integration and inclusion in APA ( Thorne, 2016 ), and with input from the pilot interviews. Sample interview questions included “Can you tell me about a