learning outcomes ( Gooze et al., 2010 ). There has also been a call in the research literature to develop and test integrative interventions, which target more than one developmental domain in concert ( Domitrovich et al., 2010 ). For example, interventions might target motor skills, numeracy skills
Kelly Lynn Mulvey, Sally Taunton, Adam Pennell and Ali Brian
Rosemarie Martin and Elaine Murtagh
A cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted to assess the effectiveness of the Active Classrooms intervention, which integrates movement into academic lessons, on the moderate-to-vigorous physical activity levels (MVPA) of primary school children during class-time and throughout the school day.
Ten classroom teachers and their students aged 8 to 12 years were recruited and randomized into the Active Classrooms intervention group (n = 131students, n = 5teachers) or a delayed-treatment controlled group (n = 117students, n = 5teachers). The intervention group participated in active academic lessons taught by the classroom teacher over an 8 week period. Accelerometers were used to gather physical activity data at baseline, postintervention and at 4 months follow-up. Teachers completed a questionnaire to evaluate the program.
A significant difference for change in daily class time MVPA levels was identified between the treatment (n = 95) and control (n = 91) groups from pre- to postintervention (P < .001) and this difference was maintained at follow-up (P < .001). No significant difference emerged between the treatment and control groups for change in school day MVPA levels from pre- to postintervention (P = .52) or follow-up (P = .09). Teachers reported that they were highly satisfied with the program.
Movement integration has the potential to improve physical activity levels of primary school children in the classroom.
David Kahan and Virginie Nicaise
Despite frequent use of pedometers in interventions targeting youth PA, there is no literature that addresses the prevalence and reasons for protocol nonadherence.
Adherence behaviors of early adolescents (n = 43; Meanage = 12.3 ± 1.0) in an 8-week, faith-based intervention were monitored/recorded. Students provided reasons for various aspects of protocol breach, which were used to develop a post intervention questionnaire. Analyses included calculations of frequency/percentage as well as cross tabulations/chi square to detect gender/age differences.
Over the intervention, recording PA in logs decreased by 85% and was attributed to forgetfulness and lack of time. For pedometers, highest-frequency events included error codes (n = 501), incorrect wear (37%, ≥ 1 day), and shaking (58%–69%, ≥ 1 time). Top reasons for shaking were to make up for lost step opportunities and get further along the route. Of permissible stepping strategies, males used ambulatory activity on the playground and stair usage more, while 6th graders used speed stepping in place more than their respective counterparts.
Students admit to basal levels of nonadherence, which should be taken into consideration when designing/implementing interventions. Integrating intervention tasks into the regular curriculum and providing sufficient opportunities to perform them may alleviate some barriers to adherence. Future research should attempt to confirm results in other school types/levels as well as quantify these behaviors in free-living or unstructured settings.
Heather J. Leach, Katie B. Potter and Mary C. Hidde
.1037/0278-6220.127.116.114 12940398 24. Estabrooks PA . Group integration intervention in exercise. Theory, practice and future directions . In: Beauchamp MR , Eys MA , eds. Group Dynamics in Exercise and Sport Psychology . New York, NY : Routledge ; 2007 : 141 – 156 . 25. Lewin K . Experiments in social space
Leigh Gabel, Heather M. Macdonald, Lindsay Nettlefold and Heather A. McKay
.01.017 10.1016/j.bone.2008.01.017 18358799 32. Martin R , Murtagh E . Active Classrooms: a cluster randomized controlled trial evaluating the effects of a movement integration intervention on the physical activity levels of primary school children . J Phys Act Health . 2017 ; 14 ( 4 ): 290 – 300
Layne Case and Joonkoo Yun
interventions may be based on general movement, PA, or other practices. For example, Abdel Karim and Mohammed ( 2015 ) examined the effect of a sensory integration intervention on gross motor skills of 34 children with ASD. The program consisted of three sessions per week of individualized play within sensory