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Iva Obrusnikova, Haley M. Novak, and Albert R. Cavalier

Musculoskeletal fitness is important for adults with intellectual disabilities (IDs) to maintain cardiovascular fitness ( Pitetti & Boneh, 1995 ); daily functional independence ( Oppewal, Hilgenkamp, van Wijck, Schoufour, & Evenhuis, 2014 ); and work task performance ( Shields & Taylor, 2010

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Andrea R. Taliaferro and Lindsay Hammond

Individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) tend to have low rates of participation in voluntary or prescribed physical activity. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to identify the barriers, facilitators, and needs influencing physical activity participation of adults with ID within the framework of a social ecological model. A qualitative approach consisted of data collected from surveys and guided focus groups. Participants included adults with ID (n = 6) and their primary caregiver (n = 6). Barriers were categorized under three themes: organizational barriers, individual constraints, and external influences. Examples of subthemes included information dissemination, reliance on others, and caregiver considerations. Facilitators included primary caregivers as champions and camaraderie. Needs centered on family program involvement, improved programmatic structure, and programmatic support. Results indicate the need for community programs to examine barriers and facilitators applicable to their unique setting and population across all levels of a social ecological model.

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Eliane Mauerberg-deCastro, Renato Moraes, and Debra Frances Campbell

We tested the short-term effects of a nonrigid tool, identified as an “anchor system” (e.g., ropes attached to varying weights resting on the floor), on the postural stabilization of blindfolded adults with and without intellectual disabilities (ID). Participants held a pair of anchors–one in each hand, under three weight conditions (250 g, 500 g and 1,000 g), while they performed a restricted balance task (standing for 30 s on a balance beam placed on top of a force platform). These conditions were called anchor practice trials. Before and after the practice trials, a condition without anchors was tested. Control practice groups, who practiced blocks of trials without anchors, included individuals with and without ID. The anchor system improved subjects’ balance during the standing task, for both groups. For the control groups, the performance of successive trials in the condition without the anchor system showed no improvement in postural stability. The individuals with intellectual disability, as well as their peers without ID, used the haptic cues of nonrigid tools (i.e., the anchor system) to stabilize their posture, and the short-term stabilizing effects appeared to result from their previous use of the anchor system.

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Rosanna Gilderthorp, Jan Burns, and Fergal Jones

Athletes with intellectual disabilities (ID) were re-included into the London 2012 Paralympics games. There has been much debate surrounding the rules of the Paralympic games, as all participants with ID compete against each other in the same class, ( Burns, 2017 ), despite the vast range of

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Janet Robertson, Eric Emerson, Susannah Baines, and Chris Hatton

active 5 with sport also having a role in promoting psychological well-being and increasing social capital. Intellectual disability refers to a significant general impairment in intellectual functioning that is acquired during childhood, typically operationalized as scoring more than 2 standard

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Rihab Borji, Firas Zghal, Nidhal Zarrouk, Sonia Sahli, and Haithem Rebai

Involvement in physical exercise is a key strategy in the prevention and the rehabilitation of health problems arising from inactivity in individuals with intellectual disability (ID) ( Robertson et al., 2000 ; Carmeli, Zinger-Vaknin, Morad, & Merrick, 2005 ). Nevertheless, physical activities for

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Jian Xu, Poram Choi, Robert W. Motl, and Stamatis Agiovlasitis

Intellectual disability (ID) is a condition characterized by significant limitations in intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior ( Schalock, Verdugo, & Gomez, 2011 ). The population prevalence of ID is about 0.05–1.55% ( McKenzie, Milton, Smith, & Ouellette-Kuntz, 2016 ). Adults with ID have

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Ken Pitetti, Ruth Ann Miller, and E. Michael Loovis

overweight and obesity ( Cairney, Hay, Faught, & Hawes, 2005 ). Pitetti, Miller, and Loovis ( 2017 ) recently assessed the gross motor proficiency of male children and adolescents with intellectual disability (ID) but without Down syndrome (DS) in areas of coordination and using the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test

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Ghada Jouira, Selim Srihi, Fatma Ben Waer, Haithem Rebai, and Sonia Sahli

Recently, public health began to consider the health needs of people with intellectual disability (ID). 1 As a result, there has been an improvement in living conditions for these people, including a regular routine of sports practice. Today, the number of athletes with ID is increasing steadily

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Loriane Favoretto, Zach Hutchison, Claire M. Mowling, and Melissa M. Pangelinan

The prevalence of developmental disabilities, including Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), Intellectual Disability (ID), and other developmental delays, has grown from 5.7% in 2014 to 6.99% in 2016 ( Zablotsky, Black, & Blumberg, 2017 ). Individuals with developmental disabilities experience