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Iva Obrusnikova, Haley M. Novak, and Albert R. Cavalier

Musculoskeletal fitness is important for adults with intellectual disabilities (IDs) to maintain cardiovascular fitness ( Pitetti & Boneh, 1995 ); daily functional independence ( Oppewal, Hilgenkamp, van Wijck, Schoufour, & Evenhuis, 2014 ); and work task performance ( Shields & Taylor, 2010

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Andrea R. Taliaferro and Lindsay Hammond

Individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) tend to have low rates of participation in voluntary or prescribed physical activity. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to identify the barriers, facilitators, and needs influencing physical activity participation of adults with ID within the framework of a social ecological model. A qualitative approach consisted of data collected from surveys and guided focus groups. Participants included adults with ID (n = 6) and their primary caregiver (n = 6). Barriers were categorized under three themes: organizational barriers, individual constraints, and external influences. Examples of subthemes included information dissemination, reliance on others, and caregiver considerations. Facilitators included primary caregivers as champions and camaraderie. Needs centered on family program involvement, improved programmatic structure, and programmatic support. Results indicate the need for community programs to examine barriers and facilitators applicable to their unique setting and population across all levels of a social ecological model.

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Eliane Mauerberg-deCastro, Renato Moraes, and Debra Frances Campbell

We tested the short-term effects of a nonrigid tool, identified as an “anchor system” (e.g., ropes attached to varying weights resting on the floor), on the postural stabilization of blindfolded adults with and without intellectual disabilities (ID). Participants held a pair of anchors–one in each hand, under three weight conditions (250 g, 500 g and 1,000 g), while they performed a restricted balance task (standing for 30 s on a balance beam placed on top of a force platform). These conditions were called anchor practice trials. Before and after the practice trials, a condition without anchors was tested. Control practice groups, who practiced blocks of trials without anchors, included individuals with and without ID. The anchor system improved subjects’ balance during the standing task, for both groups. For the control groups, the performance of successive trials in the condition without the anchor system showed no improvement in postural stability. The individuals with intellectual disability, as well as their peers without ID, used the haptic cues of nonrigid tools (i.e., the anchor system) to stabilize their posture, and the short-term stabilizing effects appeared to result from their previous use of the anchor system.

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Janet Robertson, Eric Emerson, Susannah Baines, and Chris Hatton

active 5 with sport also having a role in promoting psychological well-being and increasing social capital. Intellectual disability refers to a significant general impairment in intellectual functioning that is acquired during childhood, typically operationalized as scoring more than 2 standard

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Rosanna Gilderthorp, Jan Burns, and Fergal Jones

Athletes with intellectual disabilities (ID) were re-included into the London 2012 Paralympics games. There has been much debate surrounding the rules of the Paralympic games, as all participants with ID compete against each other in the same class, ( Burns, 2017 ), despite the vast range of

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Carly Albaum, Annie Mills, Diane Morin, and Jonathan A. Weiss

Individuals with intellectual disability (ID) demonstrate significant limitations in cognitive and adaptive functioning and typically require at least some degree of support with daily living skills. In addition to inherent functional limitations, adults with ID are more likely to exhibit physical

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Ghada Jouira, Haithem Rebai, and Sonia Sahli

Special Olympics is the largest sports organization in the world serving athletes with intellectual disabilities (ID) having an intelligence quotient less than 75. 1 To date, more than 4.4 million people with ID are involved in Special Olympics sports training and competition. 1 Athletics is

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Karlee Naumann, Jocelyn Kernot, Gaynor Parfitt, Bethany Gower, and Kade Davison

, no reviews were found which featured people living with an intellectual disability (ID). It is also important to note that only one of the previously mentioned systematic reviews explored psychosocial effects for participants ( Mortimer et al., 2014 ). While seeing physical changes is important for

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Rihab Borji, Firas Zghal, Nidhal Zarrouk, Sonia Sahli, and Haithem Rebai

Involvement in physical exercise is a key strategy in the prevention and the rehabilitation of health problems arising from inactivity in individuals with intellectual disability (ID) ( Robertson et al., 2000 ; Carmeli, Zinger-Vaknin, Morad, & Merrick, 2005 ). Nevertheless, physical activities for

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W. Tolentino-Castro, L. Mochizuki, and H. Wagner

Persons with intellectual disabilities (IDs) present impaired cognitive function, for instance, working memory, verbal comprehension, perceptual reasoning, and adaptive behavior, which affect age-related motor learning processes and daily social activities ( American Psychiatric Association, 2013