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Rosanna Gilderthorp, Jan Burns, and Fergal Jones

, which has associated respiratory, skeletal, muscle tone, cardiac, and other physical problems, in addition to intellectual impairment. Other co-morbid health issues arise from damage to the central nervous system occurring prenatally or postnatally. These conditions include epilepsy, cerebral palsy, and

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Kelly P. Arbour-Nicitopoulos, Celina Shirazipour, and Krystn Orr

research regarding sport for individuals with intellectual impairment. Individuals with intellectual impairment are a growing focus for researchers in disability sport and exercise, and the chapter acknowledges the need for researchers to fill key knowledge gaps, particularly as they relate to

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Marte Bentzen, Danielle Alexander, Gordon A. Bloom, and Göran Kenttä

, n.d. ). Coaches for athletes with intellectual impairments were excluded from this scoping review because the categorization of intellectual impairment is more complex and challenging than functional and visual impairments ( Pickering Francis, 2005 ; van Dijk, Daďová, Martínková, 2017 ). In

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J.P. Barfield, Stephanie Williams, Madison R. Currie, and Xiuyan Guo

& Vanlandewijck, 2011 ). Surveys have been the predominant methodological tool used to establish a sport performance model for a variety of sports including basketball for persons with intellectual impairments ( Polo et al., 2017 ), wheelchair rugby ( Wu, 2001 ), swimming ( Ravensbergen et al., 2018 ), and

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Janet Robertson, Eric Emerson, Susannah Baines, and Chris Hatton

there is little evidence on physical activity levels in children and youth with intellectual disability. 18 For children and adolescents with physical disabilities, intellectual impairment has been found to be consistently and negatively associated with physical activity. 19 Small-scale studies have

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Yetsa A. Tuakli-Wosornu, Xiang Li, Kimberly E. Ona Ayala, Yinfei Wu, Michael Amick, and David B. Frumberg

of classification for physical, vision and intellectual impairments . In Y.C. Vanlandewijck & W.R. Thompson (Eds.), Training and coaching the Paralympic athlete (pp.  122 – 149 ). John Wiley & Sons . Tweedy , S.M. , & Vanlandewijck , Y.C. ( 2011 ). International Paralympic Committee

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Julia Kathrin Baumgart, Espen Tønnessen, Morten Eklund, and Øyvind Sandbakk

swimming, athletes compete in 10 classes for physically impaired athletes (S1–S10, from the most to the least impaired), 3 classes for visually impaired athletes (S11–S13, from most to least impaired), and one class for intellectually impaired athletes (S14) (www

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Kim Gammage, Rachel Arnold, Nicole Bolter, Angela Coppola, Thomas Curran, Lori Dithurbide, Karl Erickson, Larkin Lamarche, Sean Locke, Luc Martin, and Kathleen Wilson

of service members and veterans with physical, sensory, or intellectual impairments as well as physical and psychological illnesses (i.e., cancer, posttraumatic stress disorder, depression). To achieve its goals, the British Broadcasting Corporation provided extensive television coverage of the

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Karini Borges dos Santos, Paulo Cesar Barauce Bento, Carl Payton, and André Luiz Felix Rodacki

classes range between 1 and 10 (excluding vision and intellectual impairments). Low values represent greater impairment, and high values indicate lower impairment ( Fulton, Pyne, Hopkins, & Burkett, 2009 ; Oh et al., 2013 ; Pelayo et al., 1999 ). Thus, comparable performances can be obtained by swimmers

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Iván Peña-González, Alba Roldan, Carlos Toledo, Tomás Urbán, and Raúl Reina

. Research needs for the development of evidence-based systems of classification for physical, vision and intellectual impairments . In: Vanlandewijck YC , Thompson WR , eds. Training and Coaching the Paralympic Athlete . London, UK : John Wiley & Sons ; 2016 : 122 – 149 . 10.1002/9781119045144.ch7