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Leehu Zysberg and Rotem Hemmel

is emotional intelligence (EI). EI pertains to the adaptive potential of the individual, based on emotional experiences and information. 9 As such, it may provide fresh perspectives on the nature of processes and mechanisms underlying health behavior in general and PA in particular. 10 , 11 EI and

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Ye Hoon Lee, Hyungil Harry Kwon and K. Andrew R. Richards

Emotional intelligence has received significant attention within the research literature related to education, psychology, and management in recent decades ( Hodzic, Scharfen, Ripoll, Holling, & Zenasni, 2017 ). Defined as the ability to perceive, understand, regulate, and utilize emotions ( Mayer

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Pedro Teques, Luís Calmeiro, Henrique Martins, Daniel Duarte and Nicholas L. Holt

) experience a variety of emotions, and (c) have the need to monitor others’ and their own emotions, it is plausible that emotional intelligence (EI) will enable parents to cope with their children’s competitive situations and behave in appropriate ways. Indeed, Harwood and Knight ( 2015 ) recently suggested

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Patrick Ward, Johann Windt and Thomas Kempton

apply these principles in a business intelligence function to support decision makers across the organization. Key personnel in professional sporting organizations are often faced with complex decisions, which can range from regular process decisions to infrequent strategic decisions. By definition

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Jennifer L. VanSickle, Heidi Hancher-Rauch and Terry G. Elliott

This study compared intercollegiate athletic coaches’ self-perceptions to the perceptions of their players concerning a coach’s emotional intelligence. Sixteen coaches and 223 players from two Division I softball conferences completed the Emotional Competence Inventory-2 (Boyaztis, Goleman, & Hay/McBer, 2001). Mean analysis revealed that coaches rated themselves higher on 14 of the 18 emotional intelligence competencies and on all four emotional intelligence clusters. Coaches rated themselves highest in Social Awareness (Error! Bookmark not defined.x̅ = 4.27/5) while their athletes rated them highest in Self-Awareness (Error! Bookmark not defined.x̅ = 3.63/5). Meanwhile, athletes gave coaches their lowest rating in Relationship Management (Error! Bookmark not defined.x̅ = 3.44/5). Coaches need to be aware that the self-perceptions of their own behavior differ from the perceptions of their athletes. Since it is well known that the behavior of the coach affects the performance of the athlete, techniques to train coaches to recognize and overcome this difference could be beneficial and are provided.

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Charles H. Brown, Dan Gould and Sandra Foster

This article reviews the emerging concept of Contextual Intelligence (CI) and its relevance to sport psychology. Interviews with expert performance consultants suggest that CI is a key factor in successful consultations. Although CI has often been considered a tacit process learned indirectly through experience, systems theory and institutional research offer models for assessing organizations and developing contextual “maps.” By having a framework and language for assessing context, sport psychologists can more effectively develop contextually intelligent and culturally appropriate interventions. The authors offer a framework for assessing context and developing contextual “maps.” Specific guidelines and principles for designing contextually intelligent interventions are provided.

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Jennifer L. Etnier and Daniel M. Landers

The primary purpose of this study was to examine differences in performance on fluid and crystallized intelligence tasks as a function of age and fitness. A secondary purpose was to examine the influence of age and fitness on the beneficial effects that practice has on both performance and retention on these tasks. Fitness was assessed in 41 older and 42 younger participants who were then randomly assigned to either experimental or control conditions. Participants performed repeated trials on two cognitive tasks during acquisition and retention, with the experimental group practicing for 100 trials and the control group practicing for 20 trials. Older participants performed better than younger participants on the crystallized intelligence task: however, younger participants performed better than older participants on the fluid intelligence task. On the fluid intelligence task, older fit participants performed better than older unfit participants. Learning did occur on the fluid task and differed as a function of age and fitness. Learning did not occur on the crystallized task.

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Frances O’Callaghan, Michael O’Callaghan, Gail Williams, William Bor and Jake Najman

Background:

Studies involving animals and older adults suggest that physical activity (PA) might lead to improved cognitive ability in general, and enhanced intelligence scores (IQ) in particular. However, there are few studies involving young persons and none controlling for the possibility that those with better cognitive skills are more likely to engage in PA.

Methods:

Data are from the Mater–University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy. We measured IQ at the 14-year follow-up and IQ and PA at 21 years. Mean IQ scores are presented at the 21-year follow-up adjusted for IQ at 14 years, and PA and other variables.

Results:

Measures of vigorous exercise, less vigorous exercise, walking, and vigorous activity apart from exercise, produced inconsistent results. Increased levels of less vigorous exercise were associated with higher IQ, but neither higher levels of vigorous exercise nor walking were associated with IQ. For vigorous activity at work or in the home, the associations are curvilinear, with more and less activity both associated with lower IQ.

Conclusions:

While there is an association between some indicators of PA and IQ, there was no consistent evidence that higher PA levels might lead to increased IQ scores.

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Alexandre Mouton, Michel Hansenne, Romy Delcour and Marc Cloes

Research has documented a positive association between Emotional Intelligence (EI) and well-being, performance and self-efficacy. The purpose of the current study was to examine potential associations between EI and self-efficacy among physical education teachers. The Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue) and the Teacher Sense of Efficacy Scale (TSES) were administered to a sample of 119 physical education teachers. The main results show a positive association between EI and self-efficacy, and more particularly that the sociability factor of EI predicted the TSES total score. Moreover, neither age nor teaching time experience was related to EI or self-efficacy scores. These results both confirm and extend previous findings on the association between EI and self-efficacy. Suggestions are provided for specific EI training for physical education teachers.

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Julian A. Reed, Gilles Einstein, Erin Hahn, Steven P. Hooker, Virginia P. Gross and Jen Kravitz

Purpose:

To examine the impact of integrating physical activity with elementary curricula on fluid intelligence and academic achievement.

Methods:

A random sample of 3rd grade teachers integrated physical activity into their core curricula approximately 30 minutes a day, 3 days a week from January 2008 to April 2008. Noninvasive fluid intelligence cognitive measures were used along with State-mandated academic achievement tests.

Results:

Experimental Group children averaged close to 1200 pedometer steps per integration day, thus averaging 3600 steps per week. Children in the Experimental Group performed significantly better on the SPM Fluid Intelligence Test. Children in the Experimental Group also performed significantly better on the Social Studies State mandated academic achievement test. Experimental Group children also received higher scores on the English/Language Arts, Math and Science achievements tests, but were not statistically significant compared with Control Group children. Children classified in Fitnessgram’s Healthy Fitness Zone for BMI earned lower scores on many of the SPM Fluid Intelligence components.

Discussion:

This investigation provides evidence that movement can influence fluid intelligence and should be considered to promote cognitive development of elementary-age children. Equally compelling were the differences in SPM Fluid Intelligence Test scores for children who were distinguished by Fitnessgram’s BMI cut points.