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Leonard M. Waekel, W. Kerry Mummery, Thomas Stephens and Cora L. Craig

The purpose of the study was to investigate the utility of various social-psychological variables for predicting intentions to engage in physical activity within a national population. More specifically, attitude, perceived behavioral control, and perceived social support measures were utilized to provide modified operationalizations of the theories of planned behavior and reasoned action in order to assess their relative utility for predicting physical activity intentions. Data from the Campbell's Survey of the Weil-Being of Canadians enabled the assessment of the predictive efficacy of the two models in the overall population, as well as in various population subgroups. The theory of planned behavior was found to account for a substantially greater percentage of the behavior intention variance (31%) than did the theory of reasoned action (15%). Further, the study provides some support for the utility of the theory of planned behavior for understanding the activity intentions of different population groups.

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Sami Yli-Piipari, Todd Layne, Janet Hinson and Carol Irwin

( Ajzen, 1991 ) is a social cognitive theory explaining human intentional behavior. A major construct of this theory is intention to behave, considered a motivational concept, and is conceptualized as the most proximal antecedent of the actual behavior. Behavioral intentions represent the level of

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Natalie Cook and Tamerah N. Hunt

evidence that concussion knowledge may not be as good a predictor of intention to report concussions. 7 , 8 Recent evidence has suggested that increasing concussion knowledge alone does not increase an athlete’s intention to report. Several theories have been suggested to examine strategies to increase

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René van Bavel, Gabriele Esposito, Tom Baranowski and Néstor Duch-Brown

others have ( Fitzgerald, Fitzgerald, & Aherne, 2012 ; Humbert et al., 2006 ; Priebe & Spink, 2011 ; Spink, Crozier, & Robinson, 2013 ). A recent study examined the effect of normative messages on PA intention ( van Bavel, Esposito, & Baranowski, 2014 ) guided by two hypotheses predicted by the

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Ines Pfeffer and Tilo Strobach

Most of the theoretical models used to explain health behavior, such as the theory of planned behavior ( Ajzen, 1991 ) or the social cognitive theory ( Bandura, 1991 ), assume that intention (i.e., motivation for a specific behavior) is the proximal predictor of behavior ( Rhodes & Dickau, 2013

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Danielle Symons Downs and Heather A. Hausenblas

Background:

Statistical reviews of the theories of reasoned action (TRA) and planned behavior (TPB) applied to exercise are limited by methodological issues including insufficient sample size and data to examine some moderator associations.

Methods:

We conducted a meta-analytic review of 111 TRA/TPB and exercise studies and examined the influences of five moderator variables.

Results:

We found that: a) exercise was most strongly associated with intention and perceived behavioral control; b) intention was most strongly associated with attitude; and c) intention predicted exercise behavior, and attitude and perceived behavioral control predicted intention. Also, the time interval between intention to behavior; scale correspondence; subject age; operationalization of subjective norm, intention, and perceived behavioral control; and publication status moderated the size of the effect.

Conclusions:

The TRA/TPB effectively explained exercise intention and behavior and moderators of this relationship. Researchers and practitioners are more equipped to design effective interventions by understanding the TRA/TPB constructs.

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Megan S. Patterson, M. Renée Umstattd Meyer and Jill M. Beville

Background:

Due to numerous health benefits, national recommendations call Americans to participate in muscle-strengthening activities at least 2 days/week. However, college-aged women tend to fall short of recommendations. This study sought to examine correlates of college women meeting strength training recommendations using the Integrated Behavioral Model (IBM).

Methods:

Undergraduate women (n = 421) completed surveys measuring strength training, demographics, and IBM constructs. Descriptive, bivariate, and multivariate analyses were conducted using SPSS 19.

Results:

Respondents were on average 20.1 years old, 79.3% were white, and 66.3% did not meet strength training recommendations. Bivariate correlations revealed significant relationships (P ≤ .01) between strength training and attitude, descriptive norms, perceived behavioral control, self-efficacy, intention, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. A logistic regression model revealed self-efficacy, intention, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity were predictive of college women meeting U.S. strength training recommendations.

Conclusions:

This study supports using the IBM to understand strength training behavior among college women. Further research is needed to better understand mediating effects among IBM constructs.

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Mohsen Behnam, Mikihiro Sato, Bradley J. Baker, Vahid Delshab and Mathieu Winand

enhancing psychological involvement with the sport organization. Thus, psychological involvement may serve as a key link between CKM actions by sports organizations and beneficial consumer attitudes and behaviors including increased perceived value, commitment, and intention to use sport services. There is

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Heather A. Hausenblas, Albert V. Carron and Diane E. Mack

The primary purpose of this study was to use meta-analysis to statistically examine the utility of the theory of reasoned action (TRA) and the theory of planned behavior (TPB) for the explanation and prediction of exercise behavior. The results showed that the effect size for the relationships (a) between intention and exercise behavior, attitude and intention, attitude and exercise behavior, perceived behavioral control and intention, and perceived behavioral control and exercise behavior was large; (b) between subjective norm and intention was moderate; and (c) between subjective norm and exercise behavior was zero-order. The results also supported the conclusions that (a) TPB is superior to TRA in accounting for exercise behavior, (b) there is no differences in the ability to predict exercise behavior from proximal and distal measures of intention, and (c) expectation is a better predictor of exercise behavior than intention.

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Kevin S. Spink and Kayla Fesser

intention to intervene with teammates becomes important. This formed the main purpose of the current study. Given that a sport team operates in a social environment, examining different sources of social influence would be a good place to start looking for ways to influence player’s intentions to intervene