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Mark Conner, Wendy Rodgers, and Terra Murray

The present study examined the moderating role of conscientiousness within the theory of planned behavior (TPB) for exercise behavior during usual vs. unusual context. Affective and cognitive attitude, subjective and descriptive norm, perceived behavioral control, behavioral intention, past behavior, conscientiousness, and self-reported behavior were assessed in relation to exercising in a sample of university students (n = 146). Conscientiousness was found to significantly moderate the intention–behavior relationship when the behavior was performed in unusual context (exercising during a reading week of term), but not when behavior was performed in usual context (exercising during a normal week of term). The find-ings indicate a role for conscientiousness in understanding intention–behavior relationships when the context of behavior is changing or unknown.

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Paul Norman and Mark Conner

Two studies on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and exercise behavior are reported that consider the mediating and moderating effects of planning on intention-behavior relationships. Undergraduate students (N = 125 and N = 102) completed questionnaires assessing TPB constructs, planning, and past exercise behavior. The TPB was highly predictive of exercise intentions (R 2 = .37 and .62) and future behavior (R 2 = .43 and .49) assessed at 2 weeks (Study 1) and 1 week (Study 2) follow-up. Planning was found to mediate the impact of intention on future behavior (Study 2) and to moderate the intention/behavior relationship (both studies). The results are discussed in relation to recent models of health behavior that focus on the volitional (i.e., postdecisional) phase of health behavior.

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Stef P.J. Kremers and Johannes Brug

Internal reliability, convergent validity, and construct validity of the Self-Report Habit Index (SRHI) were examined with respect to physical activity (Study 1) and sedentary behavior (Study 2) among children and adolescents. Internal reliabilities of the SRHI proved to be high in both studies. The SRHI correlated significantly with behavioral frequency measures, as well as with known cognitive associates of these behaviors. Moreover, theory-based moderating influences of habit on the attitude–intention and intention–behavior relationships were identified. The study provides early evidence to support the concept of habit as being important in dealing with physical activity in children.

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Paul Estabrooks and Kerry S. Courneya

The purpose of the study was to determine if exercise self-schema predicts exercise participation and moderates the exercise intention-behavior relationship. Participants were undergraduate students categorized into exerciser schematics (n = 527), nonexerciser schematics (n = 52), and aschematics (n = 106). The first of two questionnaires, given 4 weeks apart, included intention items for moderate and strenuous exercise, and exercise at university facilities. The second questionnaire included self-reported exercise items. Attendance at the university fitness facilities was monitored during the 4-week period between questionnaires. Kruskal-Wallis tests determined exerciser schematics reported intending to and exercising more often than aschematics and nonexerciser schematics for all measures (p < .01). Fischer z transformations revealed partial support for the hypothesis that exerciser schematics would have a higher correlation between intention and exercise than aschematics or nonexerciser schematics. Discussion focused on overcoming schematic assessment problems, offered explanation of results, and proposed future exercise self-schema research.

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Justin Kompf

this gap is that other psychosocial or environmental variables mediate and moderate the intention–behavior relationship. For example, a person may intent to exercise but not feel confident that they can do so. This would influence the translation of intentions into behavior. Furthermore, a person may

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Matthew Y.W. Kwan, Denver M.Y. Brown, Pallavi Dutta, Imran Haider, John Cairney, and Ryan E. Rhodes

activity itself should be sufficient to act in accordance with these intentions. Studies examining the intention–behavior relationship within physical activity research have consistently found a high proportion of individuals that do not act on these positive intentions ( Rhodes & de Bruijn, 2013 ; Rhodes

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Nina Verma, Robert C. Eklund, Calum A. Arthur, Timothy C. Howle, and Ann-Marie Gibson

physical activity identity has been found to predict adherence to regimens of physical activity ( Anderson & Cychosz, 1995 ; Anderson, Cychosz, & Franke, 1998 ), moderate the intention–behavior relationship ( Rhodes et al., 2016 ), and predict overall behavioral consistency and frequency of being

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Kelley Strohacker and Cory T. Beaumont

Behavior, 38 ( 4 ), 624 – 630 . PubMed ID: 24636125 doi:10.5993/AJHB.38.4.16 10.5993/AJHB.38.4.16 Rhodes , R.E. , & Dickau , L. ( 2012 ). Experimental evidence for the intention–behavior relationship in the physical activity domain: A meta-analysis . Journal of Health Psychology, 31 ( 6 ), 724

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Silvio Maltagliati, Attilio Carraro, Géraldine Escriva-Boulley, Maurizio Bertollo, Damien Tessier, Alessandra Colangelo, Athanasios Papaioannou, Selenia di Fronso, Boris Cheval, Erica Gobbi, and Philippe Sarrazin

Changes in PE teachers’ intention to promote PA were positively associated with changes in behaviors promoting PA (H1). While previous empirical evidence was scarce and contrasted in PE settings ( Martin & Kulinna, 2004 ; Stanec, 2009 ), our results support the intention–behavior relationship ( Ajzen

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Navin Kaushal, Kathy Berlin, and Martin S. Hagger

integrated model also included planning, which is a key construct implicated in the enactment of intentions in exercise and other behaviors ( Bélanger-Gravel et al., 2013 ; Zhang et al., 2019 ). Action planning was found to moderate the intention–behavior relationship supporting predictions from dual phase