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Corliss Bean, Carl Nienhuis, Jason Proulx, Tiara Cash, Lara Aknin, and Ashley V. Whillans

autonomy-supportive environments, engaging in meaningful dialogue and relationships, as well as modeling sportspersonship may all serve to implicitly promote life skills transfer ( Camiré et al., 2011 , 2012 ). However, coaches responsible for program implementation need to be aware that intentional

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Daniel L. Springer, Arden J. Anderson, Stuart M. Dixon, Stacy M. Warner, and Marlene A. Dixon

& Lewis, 2015 ; Nguyen, 2017 ). This care and intentionality is vital to ensuring that quality teaching and learning are provided. Thus, the educator’s responsibility to create positive learning outcomes and experiences for students via a study abroad trip should not be overlooked. Educators must be able

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Laura Martin and Martin Camiré

can occur through two approaches, namely, the implicit approach and the explicit approach. The implicit approach refers to coaches who do not intentionally plan within their coaching practice life-skills teaching strategies. Rather, when focusing on the teaching of sport skills, they create climates

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Mary Steinhardt, Dolly Lambdin, Mary Kamrath, and Teresita Ramirez

This study examined the congruence of time usage in the areas of motor skill and physical fitness among three curriculum perspectives: the intentional (teacher’s ideal curriculum), the perceived (teacher’s recall), and the operational (observations by an outsider). Data were collected on 5 randomly selected days for each of 6 student teachers and were summarized in percent time per week for fitness instruction, skill instruction, motor skill activity, physical fitness activity, and nonactivity. Results revealed that skill and fitness activities were present in the existing curriculum as described from each perspective. However, the actual curriculum taught as perceived by the student teachers differed from the curriculum they ideally intended to teach. Student teachers varied in the accuracy of their perceptions of what occurred during class. In general, the curriculum as observed by the investigators differed from both the intentional and perceived domains. Reasons are proposed, but questions remain as to how the intentional domain is developed and why the three domains (perceived, operational, and intentional) are different.

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Brenda Jo Bredemeier

A structural-developmental approach was employed in the present study to investigate athletes' moral cognitions about intentionally injurious sport acts. Analyses were based on interviews with 40 female and male high school and college basketball players. Subjects reasoned about general life and sport-specific moral dilemmas and made judgments in hypothetical and engaged contexts about the legitimacy of sport behaviors presented in the Continuum of Injurious Acts (CIA). Athletes' moral reasoning levels were inversely related to the number of CIA acts they perceived as legitimate; this reasoning-judgment relationship was particularly strong for sport reasoning and judgments made in the hypothetical context. Also, differences in the perceived legitimacy of CIA acts occurred in hypothetical and engaged contexts and as a function of sex and, in the engaged condition, school level. Results were discussed in light of athletes' coordination of moral reasoning and decision-making about intentionally injurious sport acts.

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Harjo J. de Poel, C.E. Peper, and Peter J. Beek

Based on indications that hand dominance is characterized by asymmetrical interlimb coupling strength (with the dominant hand exerting stronger influences on the nondominant hand than vice versa), intentional switches between rhythmic bimanual coordination patterns were predicted to be mediated primarily by phase adaptations in the movements of the nondominant hand. This hypothesis was supported for both right-handed and left-handed participants who performed voluntary switches from in-phase to antiphase coordination or vice versa, at four different frequencies. In accordance with previous indications that handedness is expressed less consistently in left-handers, the asymmetry between the hands was less pronounced in left-handed than in right-handed participants. The asymmetry was smaller for switches from in-phase to antiphase coordination (i.e., in the direction opposite to spontaneous transitions) than for switches in the reverse direction, suggesting that (the expression of) the handedness-related asymmetry in coupling strength was weakened by intentional processes associated with these switches.

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Mireille Bonnard, Jean Pailhous, and Frédéric Danion

The intentional on-line adaptive capabilities of human movements during continuous variation in gravitational force were investigated. Subjects performed rhythmic forearm movements in the gravitational plane during parabolic flight maneuvers that induced a continuous change from 1.8 G to 0 G over a period of 2.3 s. During the initial plateau of hypergravity, subjects produced movements at two frequencies, with and without space constraints. Afterward, they were faced with the drop in gravity, during which they were instructed either to let the movement evolve freely while maintaining the initial frequency (time-constrained task) or to intentionally maintain the frequency, amplitude, and forearm center of oscillation (time/space-constrained task). The results showed (a) a reduced angle for the forearm center of oscillation and maintenance of movement amplitude in the time-constrained task, (b) a change from an in-phase to an out-of-phase biceps/triceps activation pattern regardless of the task, and (c) an earlier occurrence of this change in the time/space-constrained task, impeding the spontaneous forearm rise. These results are discussed in the perspective of the λ model.

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Winston D. Byblow, Jeffery J. Summers, Andras Semjen, Irina J. Wuyts, and Richard G. Carson

Two experiments required right-handed subjects to trace circular trajectories while complying with either a symmetric or asymmetric pattern. In symmetric patterns, circles were traced in a mirror image either inward or outward. In asymmetric patterns, circles were traced in the same direction either clockwise or counterclockwise. Subjects were instructed to trace with spatial accuracy while maintaining a strict temporal relationship to a metronome that scaled movement rates from 1.25 to 3 Hz. The symmetric patterns were more stable than asymmetric patterns; the circularity of trajectories was greater for the dominant side; and there were spontaneous reversals in the direction of circling in the nondominant limb when performing asymmetric patterns. The second experiment examined the same subjects under the instruction of intentionally changing the pattern by reversing the left or right limb circling direction when cued to do so. The degree of interlimb interference was highly asymmetric and contingent on the direction of pattern change. Intentional direction reversals were more expedient and with less disruption to the contralateral limb when asymmetric to symmetric pattern changes were effected through a reversal in the direction of nondominant side. The results are interpreted with reference to evidence that the supplementary motor area mediates descending input to the upper limbs during disparate bimanual actions, but not during symmetric actions.

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Kellie Walters, Mary Marshall, Alexandra Nicole Wilkinson, and Michael Duxx Natividad

Social connection is vital for older adults’ physical and psychological well-being, yet nearly one third of them report feeling lonely. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of a monthly walking program (walking once a month for 8 months) on older adults’ community connection. Older adults (M age = 78.06 ± 5.98 years) completed a focus group at the completion of the program (n = 15). Qualitative findings indicate that participation in the walking program led to enhanced social connection. Researchers developed six major themes: (1) frequent and engaging walking programs, (2) benefits of group activity, (3) enhanced social connections, (4) connection to the community, (5) knowledge about transit, and (6) personal well-being, and 10 subthemes. Implications from this study highlight the importance of designing a walking program with older adults’ needs and desires in mind.

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Fernando S. Lobo, Andreia C.C. Queiroz, Natan D. Silva Junior, Fabio L. Medina, Luiz A.R. Costa, Tais Tinucci, and Claudia L.M. Forjaz

after exercise abolished PEH. Endo et al 10 showed that oral water intake during exercise also prevented PEH. Thus, these results suggest that intentional hydration may not be recommended when PEH is desirable. However, these studies have employed intravenous infusion 9 or have evaluated PEH in the