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Nicholas W. Baumgartner, Anne M. Walk, Caitlyn G. Edwards, Alicia R. Covello, Morgan R. Chojnacki, Ginger E. Reeser, Andrew M. Taylor, Hannah D. Holscher and Naiman A. Khan

and %Fat, plus covariates. Analyses were also conducted examining the interaction of %Fat and %MVPA [%MVPA × (1/%Fat)] to assess the extent to which activity and adiposity may simultaneously affect attentional inhibition. To test the influence of any interaction effect, participants were bifurcated

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Gashaw Abeza, Norm O’Reilly, Benoit Seguin and Ornella Nzindukiyimana

This study, guided by the relationship marketing theoretical framework, adopted an observational netnography method to investigate professional sport teams’ use of Twitter as a relationship marketing tool. Specifically, the study focused on the three core components of the theoretical framework of relationship marketing: communication, interaction, and value. The observational netnography is based on data gathered from the official Twitter account of 20 professional sport teams in the four major North American leagues over a seven-month period. Results outline seven emergent communication types, six interaction practices, and ten values (co)created by the teams or/and fans. Theoretical and practical implications, as well as impetus for future research, are identified.

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Teun Remmers, Ester F.C. Sleddens, Stef P.J. Kremers and Carel Thijs


Physical activity (PA) enjoyment may be an important determinant of long-term habitual, self-sustained PA behavior in children. The objective of the current study was to contribute toward a better understanding of how children’s PA enjoyment is associated with PA behavior by examining the influence of age, gender, BMI, and impulsivity as theoretically hypothesized moderators of this relationship.


PA was measured in 171 children (77 boys, 91 girls) using accelerometers, and PA enjoyment was assessed with the validated Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale in 9-year-old children from the KOALA Birth Cohort Study, the Netherlands. Linear regressions were fitted. Moderation was tested by adding interaction terms between PA enjoyment and the potential moderators.


We found a significant 3-way interaction (PA enjoyment × gender × impulsivity) for all intensities of PA behavior. In boys, impulsivity strengthened the relationship between PA enjoyment and PA behavior, whereas in girls impulsivity weakened this relationship.


In girls, this may be explained by the relative automatic occurrence of PA behavior in impulsive girls (independent of PA enjoyment). In boys, the possibility that impulsivity is associated with hyperactivity may explain this moderation. The current study may encourage researchers to investigate these interactions in future studies.

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David M. Williams, George D. Papandonatos, Melissa A. Napolitano, Beth A. Lewis, Jessica A. Whiteley and Bess H. Marcus

Given the decreased rate of morbidity and mortality associated with physical activity, understanding the factors that enhance the efficacy of physical activity interventions is a priority. The present study examined the moderating effect of baseline enjoyment of physical activity on the efficacy of a physical activity intervention. Participants were 238 healthy low-active adults enrolled in Project STRIDE, a randomized, controlled, clinical trial comparing individually tailored print and telephone interventions to a contact control. Results indicated a significant interaction between intervention assignment (telephone or print intervention vs. contact control) and baseline enjoyment on physical activity at 6 months, as measured by the 7-Day Physical Activity Recall (z = 2.44, p < .05). These results indicate that our motivationally tailored physical activity promotion program may be more effective among individuals reporting greater enjoyment of physical activity at baseline, and suggest that attention be paid to designing programs that can be effective for participants who report lower levels of physical activity enjoyment.

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Kazuhiro Harada, Kouhei Masumoto, Ai Fukuzawa, Michiko Touyama, Koji Sato, Narihiko Kondo and Shuichi Okada

than can walking alone ( McAuley, Blissmer, Katula, & Duncan, 2000 ), and that people feel more exhaustion while walking alone than when they walk with a friend ( Johansson et al., 2011 ). However, as Masumoto et al. ( 2017 ) showed that the levels of social interaction among older adults during the

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Michael A. Hemphill and Tom Martinek

Developmental relationships refer to meaningful and reciprocal interactions among youth and adults that help them develop life skills. Li and Julian ( 2012 ) argue that developmental relationships are the “active ingredient” (p. 158) to success in youth programs. Developmental relationships enhance other

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Rebecca M. Achen, John Kaczorowski, Trisha Horsmann and Alanda Ketzler

build relationships with customers using social-media channels, because, according to Grönroos ( 2004 ), customer relationships are built through two-way communications, interactions, and added value. If sport marketers adopt relationship marketing, then they should center social-media strategy on what

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Marianne Jover, Mathilde Cellier and Celine Scola

In developmental research, infants are usually assumed to become active partners in interactions with their caregivers soon after birth (e.g.,  Gratier et al., 2015 ). Very early on, dyadic interactions move from being simply alternating turns to being coordinated expressions in time, which

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Laura A. Dwyer, Minal Patel, Linda C. Nebeling and April Y. Oh

individual, environment, and behavior reciprocally interact and that both promoting self-efficacy and providing environmental supports are potential targets for intervention. 3 , 4 Interactions across multiple levels of influence (including individual, social, organizational, community, environmental, and

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Stéphanie Girard, Jérôme St-Amand and Roch Chouinard

failure, grouping of students, types of activities, interactions between and with students, evaluation criteria, and quality of feedback, students can perceive motivational climate as being focused mainly on mastery or on performance. In fact, they are more likely to perceive motivational climate as