The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence, antecedents, and outcomes of diversity training in intercollegiate athletics. Data were collected from senior level administrators and aggregated to the department level for NCAA Division I (n = 239), Division II (n = 205), and Division III (n = 231) athletic departments. Only 53% of the athletic departments offered training. Logistic regression indicated that gender diversity, sexual orientation diversity, divisional affiliation, and the presence of a proactive diversity culture were all predictive of whether the department offered training. Additional analysis indicated that sensitivity to individual needs and understanding different cultures were the topics most covered in the training. Finally, the motivation for training (either compliance- or effectiveness-based) and the degree to which the training was systematically integrated were predictive of transfer of training, with the latter variable holding the strongest association. Implications, limitations, and future directions are discussed.
George B. Cunningham
Meg G. Hancock, Alicia Cintron, and Lindsey Darvin
; Savickas, 2002 ). Thus, it is important to consider how men and women learn about careers in intercollegiate athletics, as well as how that learning process influences career paths. Such information can give insight in to the cultivation of career interests and potential career paths for men and women
Donna J. Kuga
This study examined faculty perceptions of (a) the impact of intercollegiate athletics on institutional goals and educational experiences, (b) the role and influence of faculty regarding athletics, and (c) the factors influencing their willingness (or unwillingness) to participate in the governance of intercollegiate athletics. The study also investigated differences in faculty reactions among subgroups defined by gender, faculty status, and previous athletic participation. A sample of 240 faculty from a Big Ten Conference university responded to a mailed questionnaire. Factor analyses yielded 2 factors in impact of intercollegiate athletics, 2 factors in role and influence, 3 factors in reasons for faculty involvement, and 6 factors in reasons for lack of faculty involvement. MANOVA results indicated that those who had participated in athletics perceived greater Educational Contribution of athletics and less Value Conflicts between athletics and academics than those who had not participated in athletics.
Edward F. Etzel and Jack C. Watson II
Clinical sport psychology consultation in the fast-paced and high-stakes world of intercollegiate athletics provides the clinician with a challenging set of experiences. The culture of intercollegiate athletics and the demands of academics and intensive training create an undercurrent that psychologists must factor into their work with student-athlete clients. One must be well trained so as to best meet the complex, growing, mental health needs of older adolescents and young adult college students whose lives are also impacted by the normal developmental tasks of people of this age. Accordingly, to be effective, clinicians working in this setting must be well aware of the numerous unique ethical challenges that have the potential to impact their practice. Such ethical challenges may stem from issues dealing with the athlete, coach, athletic department personnel, compliance with NCAA rules and regulations, or legal issues surrounding this setting. It is the purpose of this paper to clarify several of these possible ethical challenges.
Janet B. Parks, Ronald L. Russell, and Peter H. Wood
The purpose of this study was to investigate marital and other primary dyadic relationships of intercollegiate athletics administrators at the 106 NCAA Division IA institutions (N = 1072). The Spanier Dyadic Adjustment Scale (Spanier, 1976, 1989) was used to assess perceptions of the quality of dyadic relationships among administrators who were either married or in unmarried, cohabiting partnerships (n = 402). Application of independent samples t tests, with alpha adjusted from .05 to .003 by Bonferroni's contrasting procedure, revealed that (a) there was a significant difference between Dyadic Cohesion scores of athletics administrators and the married norm group (p < .001), and (b) female athletics administrators produced significantly higher scores in Dyadic Cohesion than did male athletics administrators (p < .003). Future research should include an investigation of dyadic adjustment of the mates/partners of intercollegiate athletics administrators to facilitate comparisons of the two perceptions of the relationship.
Richard H. Perry
A critical analysis of the literature relating to the history of problems in intercollegiate athletics, and efforts to resolve them, revealed the following: (a) The nature of the recurring problems was much the same, as was (b) the approach to resolution, and (c) the resulting long-term outcomes. In addition, it was found that efforts at resolution historically excluded involvement of the institution’s external communities. It was concluded that future efforts should employ a trinity model, composed of representation from the university, sport, and society. The institution’s external power brokers (society) should have a sense of joint authorship and accountability for maintaining the integrity of the model.
Karen E. Danylchuk and Packianathan Chelladurai
This study described and analyzed the managerial work in Canadian intercollegiate athletics. The directors of 37 Canadian intercollegiate athletic departments responded to a questionnaire eliciting perceived importance of, time devoted to, and percentage responsibility for 19 managerial activities carried out by athletic departments. These managerial activities were largely patterned after Mintzberg's (1975) description of managerial work and were verified by a group of experts. Results showed that financial management, leadership, policy making, disturbance handling, revenue generation, and a Mete affairs were perceived to be the most important and most time consuming activities. Information seeking, maintenance activities, and league responsibilities were rated the least important. The athletic directors reported that they were largely responsible for the more important tasks with average percent responsibility of 55%. The average responsibility assigned to assistant directors was 29.5%, and this limited responsibility was significantly but inversely related to the importance of the tasks.
Galen Trail and Packianathan Chelladurai
This study investigated the extent to which two stakeholder groups of intercollegiate athletics (faculty and students) differed in the importance they attached to 10 selected goals and their approval of 11 selected processes within intercollegiate athletics. A total of 652 respondents (341 faculty, 311 students, 337 men, 310 women) from a large midwestern university responded to a questionnaire developed for this study. Results showed that subgroups, defined by faculty-student status, and gender differed significantly in most instances. These differences and the similarities in the rank ordering of the goals and processes are discussed.
Samuel Y. Todd, Ian Christie, Marshall J. Magnusen, and Kenneth J. Harris
This case highlights key elements in Pelled’s (1996) model of diversity, and is based on real life interactions of an actual grounds crew in intercollegiate baseball. The small work group of three individuals collectively prepares the grounds of a new collegiate ballpark for opening day. In the course of daily facility maintenance, the staff encounters both affective and substantive conflict according to Pelled’s model. This leads to both destructive and constructive performance outcomes. Also of issue in the case is the differential relationship that the supervisor shares with each of his subordinates, or leader member exchange (LMX). Together with the teaching notes, the case is designed to highlight (1) elements of group conflict arising from demographic diversity and (2) the nature of LMX within sport organizations. An overview of theory, student applications, and discussion questions and answers are provided to aid instructors in teaching this case.
Dr. M. Elizabeth Vemer
This article is a review of literature pertaining to women’s philanthropy. The purpose is to provide a basis for research related to reasons women donate to athletics and sports. An analysis of women donors as portrayed in the non-profit and political sector philanthropic literature is provided. Inferences for sport fundraising are explored in terms of private donor giving to intercollegiate athletics, especially that which may enhance women’s sporting opportunities. Emphasis is placed on the role of women as financial donors and philanthropists during the 1990s. Projections are made relative to the potential for and nature of female philanthropy in the future.