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Multi Criteria Decision-Making: Ticket Sales Outsourcing in an NCAA Division I Athletic Department

Seungbum Lee and Matthew Juravich

Outsourcing in sport is not a new phenomenon. Specifically, outsourcing in intercollegiate sport has become common among athletic departments across the NCAA. While outsourcing can be employed to generate increased revenues via enhanced sales, marketing, or fundraising functions, many midmajor institutions are utilizing outsourcing partners exclusively to manage ticket sales. As such, this case presents a scenario in which an athletic director and her management team are faced with assessing three options related to ticket sales outsourcing at a midmajor NCAA Division 1 institution. Utilizing the lens of multi criteria decision-making, financial, nonfinancial, and circumstantial data are provided for readers to address an outsourcing decision in the context of intercollegiate athletics. By examining three options including maintaining the status quo, considering another outsourcing partner, or bringing ticket sales operations in-house, this case provides an opportunity for students to investigate the role of ticket sales outsourcing as it relates to revenue generation, a pertinent issue for athletic departments across the NCAA.

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Mental Health Literacy and Confidence in a Sample of Student Athletic Therapists

Philip Sullivan and Laura Tennant

consistent with other research that has found that stigma within the sporting environment is the most significant barrier to help seeking ( Bauman, 2016 ; López & Levy, 2013 ). The governing body for Canadian intercollegiate sport recommends that student-athletes, coaches, and athletic/physiotherapists all

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The Level of Mental Health Literacy Among Athletic Staff in Intercollegiate Sport

Philp Sullivan, Jessica Murphy, and Mishka Blacker

day-to-day function of student athletes in intercollegiate sport, we examined the levels of MHL of these individuals. As this was an exploratory study, no specific hypotheses were put forward. Method Participants Eighty individuals participated in this study; 57 identified as coaches and 18 as ATs

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Women in Intercollegiate Sport

A Longitudinal, National Study Twenty Seven Year Update: 1977-2004

R. Vivian Acosta and Linda Jean Carpenter

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Perfectionism and Burnout Within Intercollegiate Sport: A Person-Oriented Approach

John K. Gotwals

This study investigates the functional nature of perfectionism in sport through a person-oriented comparison of healthy and unhealthy perfectionist athletes’ levels of burnout. A sample of 117 intercollegiate varsity student-athletes (M age = 21.28 years, SD = 2.05) completed measures that assessed multidimensional sport-based perfectionism and athlete burnout indices (i.e., reduced accomplishment, sport devaluation, and emotional/physical exhaustion). Cluster analysis revealed that the sample could be represented by four theoretically meaningful clusters: Parent-Oriented Unhealthy Perfectionists, Doubt-Oriented Unhealthy Perfectionists, Healthy Perfectionists, and Non-Perfectionists. Intercluster comparisons revealed that healthy perfectionists reported (a) lower levels on all athlete burnout indices in comparison with both doubt-oriented unhealthy perfectionists and nonperfectionists and (b) lower levels of emotional/physical exhaustion in comparison with parent-oriented unhealthy perfectionists (all ps < .05). The degree to which findings fit within perfectionism/burnout theory and can serve as an example for research with enhanced relevancy to applied sport psychology contexts is discussed.

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“Retirement” from Intercollegiate Sport: Theoretical and Empirical Considerations

Susan L. Greendorfer and Elaine M. Blinde

Survey data from 1,123 former intercollegiate athletes (427 males and 697 females) were examined relative to commitment to a sport role, educational and occupational preparation, postcareer sport participation, social interests, and adjustment to sport retirement. Chi-square and factor analyses revealed that the former athletes in this study did not totally withdraw from the system of sport, that some shifting or reprioritization of interests occurred during their athletic career, and that the process of leaving sport may be more gradual or transitional than previously believed. Patterns obtained were similar for both males and females, and there was little evidence to suggest these athletes experienced adjustment difficulties. In light of these findings, an alternative conceptualization of the sport “retirement” process is offered.

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The Character of American Higher Education and Intercollegiate Sport

Dana D. Brooks

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A Season-Long Examination of Team Structure and Its Implications for Subgroups in Individual Sport

Kelsey Saizew, M. Blair Evans, Veronica Allan, and Luc J. Martin

The authors explored how sport structure predisposed a team to subgroup formation and influenced athlete interactions and team functioning. A season-long qualitative case study was undertaken with a nationally ranked Canadian track and field team. Semistructured interviews were conducted with coaches (n = 4) and athletes (n = 11) from different event groups (e.g., sprinters, jumpers) at the beginning and at the end of the season. The results highlighted constraints that directly impacted athlete interactions and predisposed the group to subgroup formation (e.g., sport/event type, facility/schedule limitations, team size/change over time). The constraints led to structural divides that impacted interactions but could be overcome through team building, engaging with leaders, and prioritizing communication. These findings underline how structure imposed by the design of sports impacts teammate interactions and how practitioners, coaches, and athletes can manage groups when facing such constraints. The authors describe theoretical and practical implications while also proposing potential future directions.

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Women in Intercollegiate Sport a Longitudinal Study Twenty Three Year Update 1977-2000

Linda Carpenter and R. Vivian Acosta

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Integrated Impression Management in Athletics: A Qualitative Study of How NCAA Division I Athletics Directors Understand Public Relations

Angela N. Pratt

Intercollegiate athletics directors (ADs) in the United States are high-profile representatives of their departments and universities. Their publics include media, sponsors, donors, fans, faculty, students, and government officials. However, few studies have explored ADs from a public relations perspective, especially regarding their understandings of public relations. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to learn how ADs understand public relations in the context of their athletics departments. A phenomenological approach was used to pursue this purpose. In-depth interviews were conducted with 12 National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I ADs. Their transcripts were analyzed using comparative-analysis procedures. The findings show that the participants understand public relations as integrated impression management: a combination of image, message, and action/interaction. Integrated impression management ties into ideas from Goffman (1959), as well as systems theories of public relations. However, the results also imply that ADs do not necessarily separate public relations from other disciplines such as marketing.