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Ben Jackson, Mark R. Beauchamp and Peter Knapp

The first purpose of this study was to examine the interrelationships among three forms of relational efficacy within performing dyads, namely, self-efficacy, other-efficacy, and relation-inferred self-efficacy. The second objective was to examine the relationships between these efficacy beliefs and athletes’ perceptions of their commitment to and satisfaction with their current partnership. Participants were 120 junior tennis players (age, M = 14.30 years, SD = 1.21) performing within 60 intact pairs (i.e., doubles). Results revealed that self-efficacy and other-efficacy were predictive of athlete commitment and satisfaction, respectively. In addition, by utilizing actor–partner interdependence models, partner as well as actor effects were evident. The findings illustrate that relational efficacy beliefs may not only have implications for the individual holding such beliefs, but also for his or her relational partner. Implications for the future study of efficacy beliefs within dyadic contexts are discussed.

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Niranjan Chakrabhavi and Varadhan SKM

The hand is considered to be the most dexterous part of the human body, yet it comes with its limitations. A task involving a movement of an instructed finger often involves a movement of noninstructed fingers. This phenomenon is known as finger interdependence 1 or enslavement effect. 2 The

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Günther Lüschen, William Cockerham and Gerhard Kunz

The review of existing research shows the health impacts of sport mainly on the cardiovascular system. Other causal relations are less firm, and results for the skeleton and accidents appear to be negative. Results of the American-German Health Study of 1985 confirm such results and indicate that sports’ interdependence with health culture is stronger than a supposedly causal impact on indicators of health status.

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James E. Bryant

This perspective suggests that sport management is interdependent with sport sociology as specialization areas, and that in order for researchers in sport management to understand the social product of sport it is critical that they recognize a positive theoretical relationship between sport management and sport sociology. This paper outlines examples of sport management interdependence with sport sociology through brief discussions including deviance and ethics, economics, social stratification, patriarchy, race and ethnicity, and marketing and research. Through these examples it is suggested that sport sociology provides a base for those in sport management to achieve an understanding of the social product of sport.

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Gareth J. Jones, Katie Misener, Per G. Svensson, Elizabeth Taylor and Moonsup Hyun

strategic autonomy for some organizations, Guo and Acar ( 2005 ) indicated that strategic interdependence between nonprofits is beneficial when based around a clearly defined social mission. Of course, one of the primary issues currently limiting integrative collaboration in youth sport is the weak value

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Anna Gerke and Yan Dalla Pria

interdependence. They look for optimization and synergies in the shared value-creation process. This comes from the complex nature of boat building and is therefore a backbone characteristic of the industry cluster. You don’t just design sails independently of a mast or a boat; you treat it as a system. So, they

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George B. Cunningham

In this paper, from the Dr. Earle F. Zeigler Award Lecture presented in Austin, Texas, the author proposes that all persons have an obligation to ensure sport is inclusive and socially just. Works from a variety of disciplines, including religion, sociology, and social psychology, support the thesis. The author calls for collective action among sport management academicians, coalesced around teaching, research, and service to promote change. The final sections address potential counter narratives and provide an overview of the outcomes associated with an inclusive and socially just sport environment.

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Scott Cheatham and Ethan Kreiswirth

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Jamie A. Cleland

The development of “new” media and the financial investment in football since the early 1990s have dramatically changed the football club–media relationship. A number of clubs changed ownership and organizational structure for financial gain or financial survival while the increasing demand for immediate information led to clubs’ recognizing the importance of external communication. Drawing on 47 semistructured interviews with media personnel and 827 questionnaires completed by supporters at 4 football clubs, this article assesses the organizational structure of clubs in dealing with the media and supporters and the level of dependence between clubs and the external media. The results highlight changes in the organizational structure of clubs and their strategies for external communication, as well as the contrasting relationships between football clubs and the external media. As ownership and personnel changes occur, clubs should remember the importance of the 2-way relationships they are in with supporters and the media.

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Mark R. Beauchamp and Lauren C. Whinton

One-day equestrian eventing comprises three disciplines: dressage, show-jumping, and cross-country. Participants in the present study were 187 riders (38 M, 149 F) competing in one of two intermediate-level 1-day competitions. Participants’ perceptions of their own (self-efficacy) and their horses’ abilities (other-efficacy) were assessed 30 minutes prior to each stage of competition and examined in relation to subsequent riding performance. For dressage, self efficacy (β = –.20, p < .05) and other-efficacy (β = –.26, p < .01) were each able to explain unique variance in dressage performance (adj. R 2 = .16). However, for both show-jumping and cross-country disciplines, neither form of efficacy was associated with the corresponding measure of riding performance. The results for show-jumping and cross-country may be explained by the lack of variability and heavily skewed nature of the performance data in these two contexts. Consistent with previous research, the results for dressage suggest that self-efficacy may be an important predictor of performance in sport. However, in line with theorizing by Lent and Lopez (2002), the results suggest that other-efficacy may also be an important predictor of behavioral enactment within performing dyads.